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homeopathic miasm psora explained


Psora 
 Mind.-Mental activity, psora (dull syphilis), quick, active, psora (cross, irritable, sycosis), prostrated easily from mental exertion or impressions-heat of the whole body after mental impressions or exertions-anxious, filled with forebodings-fear of death, or of illness or that their case is hopeless and incurable-mental depression-despondency-timidity, with sense of fatigue-vanishing of thoughts while reading or writing-can not control thoughts-at times seems to be deprived of thought-sadness,homeopathic anxiety remedies and dread of labor-great inward uneasiness and anxiousness-repeated attacks of fearfulness during the day (with pain or without)-oppression and anxiety on awakening up in the morning (at night, syphilis) when the weather changes (sycosis). In psora, when these restless mental spells come on they are compelled to move about. 


 In syphilis, it drives them out of bed, inducing symptoms of suicide. Psora is relieved by perspiration, syphilis aggravated by it. The mental homeopathic anxiety remedies of psora often makes its appearance about the new moon, or at the approach of the menses in women. Weeping often palliates these patients for a time.
Dread of labor, of being alone, of the dark (dread of night, syphilis), sudden transition from cheerfulness to sadness, or to peevishness without any apparent cause. When we see these symptoms appearing frequently, we may take them as a sign of psora being disturbed, or the soon appearance of some outbreak of it, in some part of the organism. We have often observed this in severe forms of hysteria, the attacks would grow more frequent and ore severe, previous to the development of tubercular disease. When they come frequently and severe, especially in young girls or young women under 25 years of age, you may be sure that there is a profound pseudo-psoric disturbance, and that a prescription based upon the totality of the nervous symptoms will seldom do more than palliate the case. The least mental disturbance unbalances them, the nervous system becomes exhausted from their repeated attacks, when it is followed by tubercular manifestations, due to the lowering of the nervous forces in the organism. Melancholy, violent beating of the heart, anxiety and extreme nervousness often follow the awakening of psoric patients from sleep. Pulsations in different parts of the body is common in these cases, feeling of constriction about different parts, especially at certain nerve centers, or points of reflex, arterial excitation, flashes of heat, organisms of blood, excited images, fear, etc. 


 Hahnemann, in a foot note in chronic diseases, says : "this kind of mental or moral disease, which originates from psora, does not seem to be sufficiently attended to. A certain feeling of insanity induces those patients to kill themselves, although they have no homeopathic anxiety remedies, no anxious thought, and seem to enjoy their full understanding". Nothing can save them, except the cure of this psora. Psoric patients are easily frightened, often by the most trifling causes, their fear often begins with trembling and shaking of the body, followed by great weakness and muscular prostration and often with copious perspiration. They may have chills or chilly sensations, fainting spells, headaches, nausea, vomiting and a host of symptoms follow attacks of fear, even to convulsions, epilepsy and spasms. They become dizzy or faint in a crowd, or when they meet strangers, or when any unusual ordeal is about to take place, they have headaches, faint spells, nausea, vomiting, or they are suddenly taken with diarrhoea. They are easily bewildered, inclined to be irritable, cross (sullen, morose, syphilis), or sensitive to many impressions, such as odor of flowers, smell of cooking foods, to atmospheric changes, bad news, joy, or they are very easily disturbed mentally. How easily they fly into a passion, and yet in a moment again they weep and are penitent. In their fits of anger, you will usually notice that they tremble in their rage, and when it is over they are greatly prostrated and often sick for a time. The true psoric patient is bright, active and quick in his movements. The latent syphilitic is dull, stupid, heavy and obstinate. The psoric patient is usually exalted, the syphilitic depressed, although when the psoric patient has the dumps, everybody knows it and can see it, while the syphilitic patient keeps it to himself, and the first thing you known he has committed suicide by jumping in the lake or river. The syphilitic patient does not worry his friends with his troubles much; he is a close-mouthed fellow, while the psoric patient is a constant annoyance to his or her friends; they are often in trouble, often found complaining, fault finding, unsatisfied, never well, and yet often quite able to locate their troubles. The psoric patient is a chronic complained, a chronic grumbler, fault finder, never satisfied with his conditions in life; they are the abused ones, the neglected ones, and yet at the same time every one is doing al they can for them. They are anxious when ill, apprehensive, despondent, melancholy, sad, changeable in their moods (syphilis, fixed in their moods). Moodiness, where they are very changeable, is quite pathognomonic of psora. 


 Time goes too fast or too slow. The psoric patient is absent minded in a general way, but the sycotic patient is absent minded only in certain things; he forgets words, sentences and previous lines that he has just read-he wonders how the simplest word is spelled-he has momentary loss of thought, or he loses the thread of his discourse frequently-he is constantly stopping to find it, which causes him to repeat. 


 Often this is due to his inability to find the right word. In the delirium or mania of psora, there is no end to his words; words are multiplied and he has no trouble in finding them; his thoughts run so fast and words are so multiplied that he does not known what to do with them. This is just the reverse of the sycotic patient, who an not find words and if he does he is not certain if they are right. If he is writing he is not certain whether he is using the right words or he is in doubt about his spelling; he drops words or letters or uses the wrong ones. When he is giving his case to the physician, he has difficulty in giving his symptoms, or he is afraid that he will not give them right, or that he will forget something. In speaking he is always afraid that he will forget something, or that he will use the wrong words. This is painful to him and causes him much annoyance and suffering. This is not so of psora; he may be so depressed that he can not speak, but when he is able to speak he is at no loss for words; in fact, they come to him in mental troubles faster than he can speak them. In reading or any mental effort, it is apt to produce pain in the head of a sycotic patient. Psoric patients, as has been said, are in severe or marked cases, sad, joyless, despairing, moody, downhearted, depressed, melancholy, and foreboding evil. A recovery of their health seems an impossible thing; they do not look for it, or have any hopes of it; This is especially true in patients suffering from suppression of any kind and if often does not disappear until the suppressed condition is re-established, when all will suddenly clear up. 


 Such is the power of suppression of one of miasms over the mentality of the patient. See Hahnemann's Chronic Disease, Vol. I, and from page 34 to 50, you will get some idea of the fearful ravages and profound action of a suppression upon the human organism. In psora we have mental delusions of all kinds, yet I doubt if they are so real under psora as they are under sycosis and syphilis. They are more apt to be temporary or flighty in psora, while in sycosis they are likely to be more fixed or permanent. Quite often you can reason a psoric patient out of his hallucinations or imaginations, but not so in the syphilitic or sycotic. There is a certain obstinacy of mind in a syphilitic, while in psora the mind is over-active and very acute. In the psoric diseases, the delirium and the action of these patients is often disgusting and they have more foolish fancies than they would have in true delirium. 
 In syphilis and sycosis, the reasoning powers are slow and they are constantly condemning self; while these symptoms may be present in psora, they are constant in a mixed miasms. The desire to kill or to destroy life is seldom a purely psoric mental symptom. The suicidal patients are, as a rule, the patients whose organisms are tainted more or less with syphilis or sycosis. 


 Often we find the syphilitic patient morose and mistrustful; there is also a desire to escape or to get away from self. This often drives them to suicide. If you will study the well-proven anti-syphilitic remedies, you will find that this destructive and suicidal element runs throughout their action. In sycosis they are as a rule always cross and irritable and disposed to fits of anger, recollection of recent events is difficult, while things long past are well remembered; this is quite a constant mental symptom of sycosis. In the syphilitic patient, his thoughts and ideas vanish away from him and he has not the mental ability to bring them back; he reads over and over again a verse or a few lines, but he can't retain it; in a moment it is gone from him; there seems to be a sort of mental paralysis; he even forgets what he was about to utter. Sometimes we see this so marked in tubercular children all through their school days, and often we attempt to whip them into line with other children whose minds are clear and strong and who have no such mental depression or devitalizing element in their organism. It is here we ought to say to ourselves, "Canst thou minister to a mind diseased?" and shall we not be very charitable with these children who have within their very life that which devitalizes and deteriorates their mental and physical powers. The syphilitic and sycotic patients are relieved of their mental stress and their mental disturbance, like psora, by some external expression of the disease, for instance a leucorrhoea or a gonorrhoeal or catarrhal discharge of any form returned, relieves a sycotic patient at once. 


 Of course this is in the secondary stage, for in the tertiary stage he may be relieved by an eruption of warts, or by fibrous formations or growths of any kind. How frequently I have seen the mental symptoms, even those of acute mania, subside in a very brief space of time by a reproduction of the discharge in a sycotic patient or in a syphilitic patient by the breaking forth of an ulcer, or some old sore that had been healed over by some local nostrum. I have seen irrepressible anguish and extreme suffering from pain, due to inflammatory conditions, relieved in a few hours by a gonorrhoeal flow or by the appearance of a syphilitic eruption; this is often the case, also in brain stasis in syphilis. How frequently we have seen fearful suffering in women at the menstrual period, before the flow makes its appearance. How often we have seen a severe neuralgia clear up in a moment, in tubercular patients, with a haemorrhage from the nose. She is happier when she has a leucorrhoea and vice versa, as we remember under the proving of Murex, which is a purely anti-sycotic remedy, like Sepia. Her pains, her aches, her sufferings, both mental and physical, alternate often with a vaginal discharge which eliminates the sycotic element from the organism. The headaches, the weariness, the confusion of mind and disposition clear up by the renewal of some catarrhal discharge that has been suppressed or has been temporarily suspended. New feelings, new life and vigor comes with the moment of the establishment of the miasmatic elimination from the organism. We see a patient moaning with pain, or with fever, or in a delirium, and we give him a few drops of aconite or arsenicum and it ceases at once. Why? Because it has at once induced an elimination of that which was culminating within, which forced that condition upon that organism. 


 Our remedies only deal with miasms, not names of diseases. The law of similia is only co-operative with that which disturbs life, not the organism as a part, and we have learned that the miasms are the persistent disturbers of life. "The miasms are the maggots that are born within the brain", as Shakespeare says, and those maggots never die until overthrown by similia. 
 Psoric attacks of all kinds are relieved by some physiological eliminative process, such as diarrhoea, copious urination or perspiration. These are not apt to relieve a syphilitic or sycotic patient, although we may find temporary relief in pseudo-psoric cases, as is seen in offensive foot or axillary sweat of the tubercular patient, which when suppressed often induces lung trouble or some other severe disease. Sudden anxiety with strong palpitation of the heart, with people suffering from gastric or liver troubles, is quite a positive psoric symptom. The liver becomes inactive, often due to overeating, when the patient becomes much depressed, irritable, disinclined to work, with sudden loss of energy, no desire to do any mental or physical labor. 


 This condition of things is often relieved by some form of cathartic which gives them immediate relief for a short time, but the same set of symptoms soon returns; the same treatment is repeated until it finally fails, then they are compelled to look elsewhere for help. Of course many symptoms, outside of the mental, accompany these cases, such as constipation, accumulation of gases in the alimentary canal, headaches, vertigoes, offensive taste, desire to lie down, moroseness, despondency, laziness, lassitude, aversion to all kinds of work, disinclination even to think, with general apathy. These symptoms are modified or changed in the different individuals, by virtue of the power of their constitutions, mode of life, diet, climate, race, sex, hereditary predisposition, education, tendencies of the mind and morals and occupation or vocation. The mental symptoms arising from moral insanity usually arise from a mixed miasm, and sycosis combined with psora figures largely in the criminality of our country. Men and women who commit suicide today (and you know how it has increased within the past ten years) are, generally speaking, sycotic, occasionally syphilitic. It is not uncommon for us to hear women say (especially women inexperienced in crime) "I will kill myself if I do not soon get rid of this loathsome disease", meaning the discharge, and they too frequently carry out their threats. Quite often from suppression of both syphilis or sycosis (subacute or chronic) a basilar meningitis is set up, which induces all forms of mental aberrations. 


 The degenerate and all his kin is either sycotic or syphilitic, usually sycotic or deeply impregnated with a sycotic taint or a syco-psoric one. The epilepsy of psora or the true insanity of psora is usually of a tubercular nature, that is latent syphilis and psora. Malignant cases have of course, all the miasms present. Sycosis implanted upon a tubercular back ground, gives us, of course, all the miasms and if the tubercular taint has been latent ever since he was born, it is as a rule very apt to be aroused when the patient contracts the malignant miasm sycosis. The life force as a rule can not retain the three in an inactive state. That mysterious protective principle or power in the life force seems over-balanced by the addition of sycosis to the tubercular element; before its addition the protective principal in the life force seemed to correlate the tubercular element and hold it under bonds, but that bond is separated and broken by the presence of the true element of sin. It can not be harmonized in the acquired state, and even in the hereditary it will break forth. The pathological in any marked degree, seldom, if ever, comes from the psoric miasm; it is more of a functional disturber. It is when it is combined with syphilis or sycosis that we see the pathological begin to develop; that is especially true of internal lesions of the body, but we meet few human beings, today, who are purely psoric and free from any combination of other miasms. Of course psora has changed in its character and action since Hahnemann's time, but yet there is no telling what combinations were formed at his time, that produced those international epidemics that assumed the form of plagues, which swept over ad over the old continents of this world. 


 As we study the symptoms that Hahnemann has given us in Volume I of his "Chronic Diseases", we see the mixed miasm in the symptoms that he has tabulated under psora or that he calls purely psoric symptoms. Indeed it is difficult to separate them as symptoms. We can with a clear knowledge, however, of these miasms discern even the faintest latent tracings of latent syphilis or sycosis inter-blended with the psoric element. "Often we have to treat our psoric cases for some time", as Hahnemann has said, "before we can discern another miasm is present in the organism" and it comes to the surface or rather begins to manifest itself as the primary element, psora, begins to disappear; that is, two latent miasms seldom become active at the same time. If they do we are liable to have a malignancy on our hands. This work is like the work of an artist, it is a study of lights and shadows, or a study symptomatology in all its shadings and in all its peculiar features, bearing upon the action that the different miasms produce upon the life force, either singly or in combination with each other. Knowing the primary, secondary and tertiary action of each we at once recognize their presence, in combination with others in any of the above named stages of action or of existence, for the signs are many and they all in opposition to physiological life and law. Therefore the truth in the physiological law of life must reveal them to our senses, so we may feel them, see them touch them in their multiplied expressions, hear them often as they multiply and exaggerate the life action in the organism, yea, taste them, for every miasm produces its won peculiar taste in our mouths as we will see later on. Thus we have a panorama of dispositions, pains, sufferings of all kinds and all the multiplied and varied expressions that can be produced by their various actions. 


 Sensorium 
 Hahnemann speaks so frequently of the vertigoes of psora and they are indeed many and quite often very peculiar. He speaks of vertigo in walking, moving, looking up quickly or rising from a sitting or lying position. Whirling vertigo with nausea is very common in the so-called bilious subjects. Vertigo with momentary loss of consciousness, when things appear too large or to small; vertigo with eructations, with rush of blood to the head or face, with headaches, prosopalgia followed with temporary blindness; vertigo as if intoxicated; especially is this true in the morning dullness of intellect and confusion, with nausea and vomiting of mucous only; vertigo when stooping and with lightness of the head, as if swimming, sensations as if floating in the air; sensations as if the head were larger than the body, as if turning in a circle; vertigo with digestive disturbances of all kinds, with nausea, vomiting, disturbances of the portal system, and constipation; vertigo on reading or writing with confusion of mind or with specks or stars before the eyes, or sensation of a veil before the eyes; vertigo on closing the eyes, on falling asleep; vertigo with sensations of falling or as if in a boat; vertigo on riding in a boat, or at sea, with nausea and vomiting, or when riding in a street car or in a carriage. Psoric patients can not be disturbed much, they prefer to remain quiet when sick unless the mind is affected. The brain becomes anaemic easily, therefore they are subject to kinds of vertigoes. Vertigoes beginning in the base of the brain are more apt to be of a sycotic or syphilitic nature or may be of a tubercular origin. Vertigo with flashes of heat and with perspiration which often relieves, vertigo in a warm room or when the air is not good, vertigo when stooping, in walking, with roaring in the ears and confusion of the senses, heaviness of the head and weakness of the lower extremities and palpitation of the heart. Vertigo on turning over in bed, or closing the eyes. 


 Head.-Morning headaches, constantly returning, persistent, frontal usually. (Headaches at night, syphilis, worse at night or the approach of night, basilar) psora usually worse as the morning approaches. Syphilitic headaches get better in the morning and remain better all day until evening when they grow worse as the night advances, then grow better towards morning. Psoric headaches grow worse as the sun ascends and decrease as it descends. Psoric headaches are sharp, severe, paroxysmal; syphilitic, dull heavy or lanceolating, constant, persistent, usually basilar or linear, or one-sided. Psoric headaches are usually frontal, temporal or tempo-parietal, sometimes on the vortex, although quite often a vortex headache is a sycotic one. 


 Headaches occurring every Sunday or on rest days have often behind them a tubercular taint. They are worse riding in a carriage or are due to he least unusual ordeal as preparing for examinations; meeting with strangers and entertaining them. Headaches with deathly coldness of the hands and feet, with prostration, sadness and general despondency, have often a tubercular history. Headaches with bilious attacks, nausea, vomiting, coming once or twice a month, are usually of psoric origin. Headaches better by quiet, rest or sleep are apt to be psoric; headaches made worse by warmth, rest or while attempting to sleep are apt to be syphilitic. Headaches with red face and rush of blood to the head, or at certain hours of the day, usually in the forenoon; headaches relieved by rest, quiet, sleep, eating, are pseudo-psoric. A headache relieved by nose bleed has a tubercular taint behind it, in fact any disease that is relieved by nose bleed is tubercular. Headaches better by hot applications, by quiet, rest, sleep, are psoric. Prosopalgia or persistent headaches which are not easily relieved by treatment are usually of a tubercular origin, that is, the tubercular taint is present in that organism. A sycotic and a syphilitic headache is worse on lying down and worse at night. Generally speaking a syphilitic headache is basilar; a psoric, temporal or frontal, a sycotic frontal, or on the vertex; both the sycotic and syphilitic are worse at or after the midnight hour. 


 The headaches of sycosis in children are more common than we think today, they are worse at night, produce feverishness, restlessness, crying, fretting and worrying. The sycotic headache is always relieved by motion as in all sycotic diseases. Keep the children in motion in every sycotic disease and they are comparatively quiet; keep them quiet in psora. A tubercular or syphilitic headache will often last for days and is very severe, often unendurable, sometimes accompanied with sensations of bands about the head. Many of them are due to effusion. The patient often has a weak feeling about the head, can not hold it up, and sometimes we find them so severe as to produce unconsciousness, rolling or boring of the head into the pillow, ocular paralysis, moaning, with feverishness and restlessness or the patient is stupid, dull or listless, even semi-conscious. Other symptoms are rush of blood to the head or face, with roaring in the ears, with determination of blood to the chest, hot hands and feet, have to bathe them in cold water, as we find under Phosphorus or Opium. Occasionally the tubercular headaches are aggravated by heat which is not so true of psora. This shows the amelioration to be found in the syphilitic miasm by cold. In the syphilitic or tubercular headaches we see children striking, knocking or pounding the head with the hands or against some object. This is not true of psora in any sense, as psora is better by rest and quiet and sleep. Such a peculiar symptoms as great hunger before headaches has its origin often in a tubercular taint and is not purely psoric. Headaches from repelled eruptions or suppression of any skin eruption, hunger before or during headache are apt to be pseudo-psoric. 


 Outer head 
 Hair.-Hair dry, lustreless, tangles easily, breaks and splits easily. (Hair moist, glues together, offensive odor from the head, tubercular). Hair becomes white in spots, aversion to uncovering the head, dry eruptions on the scalp; hair dry, dead-like, full of dry, scaly, bran-like dandruff which can be shaken out like a shower of bran; hair falls out generally, worse after acute fevers or acute diseases; hair falls out in bunches or in spots usually beginning on the vertex (syphilis, latent). Hair dry like tow (tubercular or latent syphilis); hair dry, dead like the hemp from an old rope, tubercular or latent syphilis. Falling out of hair from eyelashes and eyebrows, syphilis, hair falls out in little circular spots in sycotic diseases of the scalp; hair very oily and greasy, latent syphilis or tubercular; hair falls out after abdominal and chest diseases or after parturition tubercular and psoric; hair becomes grey too early, psora, especially if it is general over the whole head; hair fetid, oily, sour smelling (syphilis); falling out of hair on sides of head and on vertex, latent syphilis; hair falls out generally in psora, not so in syphilis. 


 The Beard is seldom affected by psora nor are the eyebrows and eyelashes; stubby, dead, broken hair in the beard, sycosis; hair falls out in beard due to skin eruptions, sycosis, syphilis. In latent syphilis and pseudo-psora are seen the crooked, curved or bent and broken hairs of the eyelashes even when no other marked symptom is present; red eyelids, stubby, broken or imperfect eyelashes ate found in syphilis or in the tubercular taint; red eyelids, granular lids, often accompany this condition of the hairs. The eruptions in the hair of true psora are usually dry (moist, tubercular or latent syphilis). Severe itching of scalp with dryness, psora; severe itching with moist, offensive, matted hair, pseudo-psora; a fishy odor from the hair, sycosis; musty like old hay, tubercular; child smells sour, sycosis; fetid, sour, oily, tubercular or latent syphilis; hair mats together (plica polonica), tubercular or syphilitic; head a mass of thick crusts of dried pus and excrement, tubercular or syphilitic. 


 Scalp 
 Psora; dry, scaly dandruff on scalp with much itching, dry, crusty eruptions (moist, thick crusts, syphilis); pustular eruptions, tubercular, thick, yellowish bland pus, tubercular; small popular eruptions on the scalp, tubercular; cracks about ears, tubercular as seen under Hepar Sulphur, Petroleum, Tuberculinum, etc. Dry, eczematous eruptions about scalp, psora; moist, tubercular or syphilitic. Tubercular skin eruptions are aggravated by bathing, working in water, or washing; cold open air aggravates (better syphilis). Scalp is dry in psora; moist, perspiring copiously in syphilitic and tubercular children. Head normal in size and contour, in psora; large, bulging, often open sutures, bones soft, cartilaginous in syphilitic and tubercular children. Painful pimples on the scalp with much itching, which is relieved by scratching but is followed by burning and smarting; itching worse in the evening and by heat of bed, psora. The scalp eruptions of true psora are usually dry, when they are moist with copious pus formations they will usually be found to be tubercular, the scales and crusts of psora are usually dry, if moist the discharge is scanty and either of pure serum or bloody serum. A thick, heavy, yellow crust is quite apt to be of syphilitic or tubercular origin. Pimples in psora inflame, and are very sensitive, and often painful, but do not suppurate, or, if they do suppurate the discharge is scanty. Heat of the head may be either psoric or tubercular, usually tubercular being worse at night; can not comb the hair until it is wet or moistened it is so dry, psora; it will not remain in any position it is so dry, must comb it often. The aversion to having the head uncovered is a tubercular symptom, as a true psoric patient can not bear much heat about the head, while they like heat generally speaking. There is seldom any sweating about the head of a psoric patient, indeed they seldom perspire. The scalp always looks unclean like the skin of a psoric patient. 


 Eyes and vision 
 The eyeball is seldom affected very profoundly by psora, usually syphilis is the miasm that makes serious inroads upon the structures of the eyes. If the vision is affected at all, it is found in the simpler forms of refraction, while the latent syphilitic or tubercular gives us such changes as are found in astigmatism and other marked refractory changes due to malformation or to hereditary changes in the ball itself. Changes in the lens are always syphilitic or tubercular, as are such changes as we find in the sclera, choroid, ciliary body and iris. It is syphilitic or tubercular processes that change organs and gives us perversions of form or shape and size. Psora does give many eye affections but never change in the structure of the eye itself. We also have aversion to light, even quite marked photophobia in psora, but nothing like that found in tubercular or syphilitic patients. Disturbances in the glandular structures or in the lachrymal apparatus are always syphilitic or tubercular. 


 Pustular diseases are apt to be tubercular as found in many cases of granular lids. Hyperaemia of a chronic form may be of a psoric origin, but granular lids are quite often tubercular. Ulcerations and specific inflammations are sycotic, tubercular, or syphilitic, although corneal ulcerations in young people come often from a sycotic taint. Chronic corneal ulcers in children, where no trace of syphilis can be found, are usually of a sycotic origin and of course of a hereditary nature based upon a tubercular diathesis. (Sycosis never give the true ulcer). Ciliary blepharitis is, whether acute or chronic, either syphilitic or tubercular. Scaly, red lids, angry looking, crusty lids are never of a true psoric origin; they are either syphilitic or tubercular. All stys are tubercular or have, as we understand, a tubercular taint behind them, as they are a granular change whether they contain a sabacious matter or the cheesy formation. 
 Syphilitic or tubercular patients dread artificial light more than sunlight, although they may be aggravated by both. Thick copious pus formations or discharges, especially if of a greenish or yellowish-green color, are distinctly tubercular or sycotic. Ptosis is never psoric. Ciliary neuralgias are so apt to be either tubercular or syphilitic. Great dryness, itching and burning of the eyes are to be found frequently under the psoric miasm. The psoric eye has a great intolerance to daylight or sunlight when diseased. 


 Often in psora we have reflex eye troubles or nerve disturbances, of course all the diseases of the eye may depend largely on the psoric basis or psoric state as do other diseases, but what we mean is, that these diseases originally developed through and from the syphilitic and tubercular processes. We have many arthritic and rheumatic troubles with the eye, which do depend on sycosis, combined with the psoric miasm. The neuralgias and pains about the eye are often distinguished by their character and periodicity. The syphilitic pains are worse at night or after the sun sets and are aggravated by heat; this may be often true of the tubercular, although they are never, as a rule, relived by cold or by cold applications; generally they are relieved by hot applications. This is not so of psoric pains; they are relived by heat and are worse as the morning approaches and as the sun rises towards the meridian. Sycotic pains may come on at any time, but they are worse by barometric changes, or by moisture, rainy or stormy weather. 
 Conjunctival troubles are often of purely psoric nature, especially when there is an ardent desire to rub the eyes, much itching in the canthi, constant, not relieved by rubbing. A chronic dilatation of the pupil in children or women, is quite characteristic of pseudo-psora, or when a tubercular basis is present. When pseudo-psoric patients are affected with exanthematous fevers of any form, there is a strong tendency to inflammatory stasis of the eye, and serious eye troubles are apt to follow. In the visionary field in psora we have fiery, zigzag appearances around the objects, or dark spots, followed with streaks of light, unsteadiness of vision, or the vision is blurred; letters run together in reading. Usually the inflammatory troubles involving the eyes are accompanied with much itching and burning of the lids, with great desire to rub them. The pains and neuralgias are usually worse in the morning, or throughout the day, and are relieved by heat. 


 Ears-hearing 
 The psoric difficulties in hearing are usually of a reflex origin or of a nervous character. All organic ear troubles are either tubercular or syphilitic. Suppurative processes and destruction of the ossicles of the ear are quite apt to be tubercular. 
 The ear is often a safety valve in tubercular children; it relieves them of many serious troubles liable to occur during dentition. Abscesses of the ear often relived many quite severe meningeal difficulties in children. They show themselves so frequently in measles, scarlet fever and such diseases. Here the tubercular element comes readily to the surface in the form of a suppuration of the middle ear. 


 The tubercular element is more frequently aroused from its latent condition by fever than by any other means. All of the blood vessels of these patients with a tubercular element in their organism, are abnormal from the capillaries to the arteries themselves, their walls are all defective and usually unduly dilated. This we can readily see on examining the upper layer of the skin, where they are to be found lying beneath the surface of the thin skin, usually of a bluish or pinkish color. The circulatory system might be compared to poor plumbing that will not endure any unusual pressure, therefore, when it is disturbed we have intense febrile states that are prone to congestions of parts and the formation of pus cavities and abscesses. The peculiar carrion-like odor from these aural abscesses is so characteristic of the pseudo-psoric patients that we can not well be mistaken; often the discharges are cheesy or curdled. Such remedies as Hepar sulphur, Teucrium and Psorinum will represent the character of this pus found in tubercular abscesses of the middle ear. Seldom is the ear affected in a purely psoric condition. A tubercular or syphilitic taint is always to be looked for in these cases. Of course, psora is the medium that arouses into action all other latent or chronic miasms and becomes the basic principle of the acute as well as of the chronic condition. The auditory canal in psoric patients is always dry and scaly, dry bran like scales are constantly forming and falling off into the canal Quite often the serumen is greatly increased or diminished. Itching is a constant symptom in many cases. Markedly psoric patients are oversensitive to sounds or noises, as is seen under Coffee, Opium and such remedies. The eczematous eruptions about the ears and especially the humid eruptions, pustules, fissures and incrustations behind the ears are generally of a tubercular origin. The porches of the ear look dirty, dry and scaly in psora. In tubercular or latent syphilitic patients the ears look pale, white, often old, and in some cases translucent, almost, with the blood vessels enlarged, bluish in color or bright red, and their course traceable in the tissues. They are often unduly large and distended when the tubercular diathesis is very marked. All these symptoms are absent in a purely psoric patient, the ears are normal in size and shape, of dirty color, which washing does not make clean, that is apparently clean, but this fact is quite general over the epidermis of the entire body. The tubercular child is constantly having abscesses in the ear, due of course to the same tendency to congestion which is ever present in these patients. If they are free from ear troubles they invariably suffer from throat affections, especially the tonsils, hence are forever having tonsillitis. 


 We can not well mistake these tubercular ear troubles of children and young people. In the day time they appear well, free from pain, but at night their sufferings begin, often they awake out of sleep screaming with the earache. They may begin as early as the first year, even earlier, and continue more or less until past puberty. The least exposure to cold or slightest draft brings on an attack. Occasionally we have prolonged febrile attacks with great suffering which is suddenly relived by the breaking of the abscess. Quite often their general health improves even when the ear is discharging copiously of this tubercular foul smelling pus. 


 Nose and smell 
 There are many symptoms pointing to psora and pseudo-psora in the nose. Psora greatly increases the sensitivity of smell. Patients are unusually affected by odors of any kind, which will even awake them out of sleep. They are troubled with odors of cooking, the smell of flowers, perfumes, paints, plants, etc., as they induce nausea, vomiting, headaches, loathing of food, fainting, sickness of stomach, vertigo, loss of appetite and many other annoying symptoms. Some times the smell may be diminished or lost but this comes more frequently in syphilis or sycosis, these have complete loss of smell and taste, also of hearing. 
 Haemorrhage from the nose is not a purely psoric symptom. When this occurs in young girls and boys, it will be found to depend on the tubercular and the cause is similar to that described in the febrile state of tubercular patients. We so often find in these patients rush of blood to the surface, to the face, head, neck or to the hands and feet, inducing great heat to the part. 


 Papular eruptions and pimples about the nose, as is seen in simple forms of acne, not the acne indurata or the tubercular form, but the vulgaric form. A red nose with enlarge capillaries depends on a sycotic element or over-stimulation of the organism. Acne rosacea is so frequently found to be tubercular. The bones of the nose are never destroyed from any other miasm than syphilis. Snuffles in children are dependent on sycosis or syphilis. Syphilis produces ulceration, large thick crust, known as clinkers, often filling the whole nasal cavity; frequently they have to be removed, but soon form again. The snuffles in sycosis is usually moist and there is no ulceration and no crusts, the discharge is mucus usually in sycosis, or if purulent, very scanty and has the odor often of fish brine or stale fish. The crusts of syphilis are dark, greenish, black or brown, thick and not always offensive. The catarrhal discharge in tubercular patients is thick, usually yellow, and of the odor of old cheese or sulphate of hydrogen and is constantly dropping down in the throat. The stoppage in sycosis is due to local congestion and thickening of the membrane or enlargement of the turbinated bodies due to congestion, the discharge is yellowish green, scant, except in fresh colds when it is a copious thin mucus. A tubercular child will have a haemorrhage from the nose from the slightest provocation-blowing the nose, a slight blow, or washing the face even will produce it in some people. The haemorrhage are profuse, bright red, difficult to arrest and are relieved by cold applications. 


 Over-exercise, over-heating will often bring it on. These headaches, vertigoes and congestions to the head and brain are often relieved by nose bleed. In the worst forms of hay-fever, where there is much sneezing, and with much local trouble, we find it often depends on the tubercular taint with an acquired latent sycosis ingrafted. Of course psora is greatly magnified in all of these cases, but purely psoric cases are easily cured by the homoeopathic remedy, while where the mixed miasm is present, it is extremely difficult to cure. The psoric cold, when they affect the nose, begin with sneezing, redness, heat, sensitiveness to touch when they have blown it for some time; the discharge is thin, watery, and acrid. In the tubercular subject it soon becomes thick, purulent, and sometimes bloody. In the sycotic cases the discharge is scanty, usually mucus; generally they can not breathe through the nose or blow any mucus from it, but the slightest amount of discharge relieves the congestion and stopped-up feeling. Painful boils, pimples and vesicles are common to psora, occurring in the septum; often they are extremely painful and sensitive and seldom break or discharge much pus. The septum of psoric patients looks dirty or sooty looking. In rhinitis it is often dry, hot, burning. In lupus of the nose the three miasms are usually present. 

 Face 
 There may be no appearance of psora in the face and again the face may be a plain indicator of its presence in the organism, although it is usually in more advanced cases that we notice it in any marked degree. The face may be pale, sallow, earthy, sometimes the eyes have a sunken appearance, with deep blue rings around them, but this is also found in the tubercular diathesis. Circumscribed red spots on the cheeks is quite a positive tubercular symptom whether found in an infant, child or adult; usually these spots appear in the afternoons or evenings. We see them in such conditions in children as dentition, worms, febrile states, colds, etc., and in adults when tubercular troubles are just beginning to develop or when they are in full force. Flashes of heart to the face or head and chest have no doubt a tubercular element behind it disturbing the circulation, although the hot flashes at the climatic period is purely a psoric symptom, and is relieved by anti-psoric treatment. Red lips are found in a very psoric patient, or in extremely marked cases where the blood seems to be ready almost to ooze out of them, are tubercular. Often we find the face and lips blue and congested in patients with poor, slow, circulation. The lips often look parched and dry with a sooty coating. In syphilitic patients the face has a greyish, greasy appearance. Usually the skin on the face of a very psoric patient is dry, rough and pimply, often it has an unwashed or unclean appearance. Reddish, millet-seed sized papules that appear on the nose, cheeks and chin, ulcers in the corners of the mouth are apt to be tubercular; vesicles about the mouth, small, white, transparent and accompanied with much itching are psoric (hydro or cold sore). 


 Deep fissures in the lips are usually syphilitic but of course can be tubercular. Swelling and burning of the lips or burning, itching, is found under psora. We find edema swelling or puffiness of the face, lips, eyes and eyelids in tubercular people, especially is this found to be true in the morning or after sleep; erysipelas of the face will be found to have the psoric and sycotic element combined and we may have to begin the treatment with anti-sycotic remedy such as Rhus-tox, although we may have to use a purely anti-psoric remedy as Sulphur to finish the cure, and vice versa; but as this is true of this disease so it is true all diseases; of course all warty eruptions are sycotic, moles and papillomati may be either sycotic or syphilitic. In psoric fevers the face becomes very red, hot, and shiny, in tubercular patients it is more apt to be pale or have a circumscribed redness of the cheeks. Paleness of the face on rising in the morning or after sleep, and even after eating is found in tubercular patients, or that one cheek may be red and the other pale, one hot, and the other cold, is also common in these patients in either latent or active stages of the disease. In syphilis we often see that grey ashy appearance on the face of an infant. 


 It looks old, puckered, weazened, dried up, wrinkled like an old man. The tubercular face is either round, skin fair, smooth and clear with that waxy smoothness of the complexion, eyes bright and sparkling, eyebrows and eyelashes soft, glossy, long and silken, thin lips, or we have the high cheekbones, thick lips, almost like an African; in some cases the skin of the face is rough, voice coarse, deep, often hollow, eyelids red, inflamed, scaly, crusty, lashed broken, stubby, irregularly curved and imperfect; in these cases the syphilitic or tubercular element predominates in a latent form of course. They perspire freely about the face, often we see large drops like pearls about the face, nose and lips, usually the skin of the face is pale, cool, perspiring, while in psora we have not such changes, physiologically speaking, and the skin of the face is dry, pimply, rough, complexion bad, dirty and of an unwashed appearance. In the tubercular patient, physiologically speaking, the face and head is often seen to be of the shape of a pyramid with the apex at the chin. The nose may be well shaped in this special form, the features sharp, the eyes unusually bright, often sparkling, the nostrils are small, the opening narrow, the least obstruction in the nose induces them to breathe through the mouth which causes an imperfect expansion and filling of the lungs. We many not see the flashes of heat or circulatory expressions we see in other expressions of the tubercular face, indeed the face looks fairly well even in the last stages of the disease, when other parts of the body become emaciated and show marked signs of the disease. 


 Cavity of the mouth, teeth and gums 
 Probably in no other part can we find as many symptoms of the syphilitic and tubercular diathesis as we do in the mouth and the organs of the mouth. Such disease in children as thrush and stomatitis are of psoric origin, but when we see the true ulcer in the mouth or on any of its adjoining mucous surface, we must not attribute them to psora, for the true ulcer is of syphilitic or tubercular origin, as is also the swelling and indurations of the glands and such pathological changes as we se taking place in the teeth or dental arches are of a syphilitic or tubercular diathesis. When we come to haemorrhages of the mouth, excessive bleeding of the gums, we must attribute it to the tubercular diathesis unless syphilis is actually present. Often they will bleed at the slightest touch, again we see them receding from the teeth or they are soft and spongy and bleed at the slightest touch even when brushing them. The dental arch is imperfect, irregular, or the teeth are imperfect in form, club-shaped or come in an imperfect or irregular order, often decaying or becoming carious before hey are entirely through the gums, or before they are perfectly developed. They appear often with much pain and suffering, accompanied with constitutional disturbances often of a marked degree, such as diarrhoea, dysentery, spasms, convulsions febrile states, abscesses of the middle ear, disturbances of digestion, meningeal congestions and meningeal inflammations. 


 I now recall a case in a male child of 16 months who has had meningeal congestion with severe pain at the base of the brain at the eruption of each tooth. It would beat and pound its head against any object that was near it, or with its little fists; usually when these attacks came on it would scream for hours, with pain; they came on mostly at night. Diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting of its food were quite constant symptoms; at the same time the gums were greatly swollen, hard and cartilaginous like, which of course prolonged the eruption of the teeth. Accompanying these symptoms was profuse perspiration about the head and face, dampening the pillow on which it had lain. The perspiration had a strong, musty odor. For these symptoms Stannum met. was given, which relieved many of the symptoms. This remedy was followed later on with Cal. carb. It is only of late years that we have recognized that these symptoms are of a tubercular origin. These white skinned, pale, flabby muscled children, as a rule, all have a tubercular family history. So, many of them die in these cycles of physiological stress or development. Their frailly constructed organisms are often overpowered by these unusual efforts that nature necessarily has to put forth in the development of these tubercular children. There is always something wrong with these children, if it is not one thing it is another; they can not endure either extreme heat or cold or any extremes of temperature; a few hot sultry days in July or August followed by cool nights throw them into diarrhoea or dysentery or they have sudden arrest of digestion with marked gastric disturbances which often endangers their lives. We have no assurance of them at any time and should they survive the ages of infancy and childhood, they are prone to be partakers of every child's disease that comes along. Observe their large pyramidal shaped head, which gives the face a small appearance, the prominent forehead, the flabby, over fleshy baby, or in other words the phlegmatic babe with its copious sweating about the face, head and upper part of the body. Its enlarged cervical glands; the wilful, positive nature, the stubborn disposition, etc. 


 Taste 
 The taste of a psoric patient is either sour, sweet or bitter and some times it is designated as bad taste, but the three forms above mentioned are to be found quite constant in psora. A putrid taste or a taste of pus or blood will be found in the tubercular patient, and in those suffering from a tubercular taint. Expectoration of pus that very sweet is tubercular; some times the patients have a salty taste, or a rotten egg or sulphate of hydrogen taste. Any of the miasms may have a partial or complete loss of taste. 


 A bitter taste with yellow coated tongue points strongly to psora. A putrid, musty or fishy taste will be usually found under the miasm sycosis. All metallic tastes make us think of syphilis or that the tubercular element is present in the organism. The saliva of a syphilitic patient is ropy, cottony, viscid, metallic or coppery tasting. After eating sweet things taste sour or the patient may have a sweet, sour or bitter taste in psora. Psora has much perverseness of taste, for instance bread tastes bitter, water has an abnormal taste, occasionally foods of all kinds are rejected because of their abnormal taste. Tasting of food recently eaten, or eructations, tasting of food or of grease, fats or oil, etc., is a common psoric symptom. Some psoric patients are extremely sensitive to taste. I can now recall a patient, a woman about sixty years of age, who could taste for days any application that was made to the skin, such as coal oil, turpentine, lard, liniments, and the different compounds which might be used as local applications in such diseases as rheumatism. The taste of blood is a peculiar latent tubercular symptom often to be found in women with a tubercular diathesis. It may or may not appear during the menstrual period, but is present frequently in the morning. The taste of a psoric patient is often bitter in the open air as we see under the remedy Psorinum. A burnt taste in only found under psora. A foul taste may be found under any miasmatic basis. Of course any of these tastes may be found in some degree in pseudo-psora, or where the psoric element predominates, nevertheless, the taste is of psoric origin. The miasms produce perversions in every expression of life, therefore our tastes, likes and dislikes are not exempt from them. 


 Naturally the taste in the mouth should be neutral. We should taste nothing but our food and drink and that should be normal, but it is the latent or active miasms that falsifies all things, even taste. Not infrequently we find a certain periodicity about it, it may be worse in the morning as seen in the foul, bad taste of nux vomica or the bitter taste of bryonia. Nat., mur. and phos. has a bloody taste. Washing out of the mouth does not even relieve in some cases; even pure water will taste bitter to some people, where the psoric or pseudo-psoric miasm is present. No remedy has a more bitter taste than Aloe, yet it cures an inky taste in the patient's mouth. Elaps cor. Has a bloody taste before coughing; Mercury, a metallic taste; Hepar and Tuberculinum, Pyrogen, a taste of pus when coughing. I mention these peculiarities of taste to show the endless variety of perversions we may find in this sphere alone from miasmatic action. It all comes, of course, through perverted nerve impulses; but they are basic miasmatic symptoms, because they are largely from a central nervous center, therefore they are very important in making up our case. I never neglect them in prescribing for my patients and always keep a repertory quite convenient that I have prepared for this purpose, that I may consult it when any of the special senses are perverted by miasmatic action. It is always a profound disturbance and demands more than a casual recognition in taking the case and making our prescription. I have frequently had patients (who were suffering from exhaustion due to haemorrhages or seminal losses) have a sour or bitter taste this then we say is distinctly of psoric origin, just as the metallic and bloody taste is of tubercular or syphilitic origin. We can not afford therefore to overlook the miasmatic perversions of taste and they will grow in importance as you look into this miasmatic mystery. 
 Hunger, desires and aversions 
 Morbid hunger of unnatural hunger is a very important and quite a constant symptom of psora. Hunger at unnatural times during the twenty-four hours; hunger an hour or two before eating or hunger in the night after sleeping; hunger immediately after eating; hunger is not satisfied when stomach is full; hunger with weak, gone sensations before eating; hunger with great prostration after eating; eating makes them sleepy; eating causes profuse perspiration, after eating, much distention and fullness, with flatulence and distention of gas; hunger that is not satisfied by eating, psora; although faint if hunger is not soon satisfied or extreme hunger with all gone, weak, empty feelings in the stomach is apt to appear more in the tubercular diathesis, although it is of psoric origin. They sometimes have constant hunger and eat beyond their capacity to digest, or they have no appetite in the morning, but hunger for other meals. Often the tubercular patient has a great desire for certain things, but when he receives them he does not want them, in fact they are repugnant to him. We see this symptom in the child more than in the adult; he will ask for things, then, when he receives them, will cast them from him with anger. 


 Desires and aversions 
 The psoric patient has longings and desires for sweets, for acids and for sour things, the tubercular patient likes these things also, but it is the psoric taint that produces it. The tubercular patient likes hot or real cold things; they are extremists in the matter of heat and cold in many ways, one part of the day they are chilly and the next part they are too warm. Their longings are often for indigestible things, as chalk, lime, slate pencils, etc. It is a noticeable fact that if the system is not assimilating certain things, they will crave that thing. This is seen more particularly in young girls, in children, and in women in the pregnant state. They are great cravers for peculiar things; they crave salt, and will eat it alone from the dish; they use much slat in their food, more than the whole family put together. 


 The trouble with these patients is that they can not assimilate these things; they have lost the power of assimilation, and the more they become affected with the internal workings of the miasm, the less power they have to assimilate them, until it falls far below par. Again these tubercular patients, who have never taken stimulants, often have a longing for them, especially for beers, wines, ginger ales or hot aromatic things. In fevers the psoric patients have craving for butter milk, acid things, pickles, cabbage and indigestible things, things that they should not have. So it is the same in the pregnant state, the patients long for things often never eaten before, and will do almost anything to procure hem. These desires usually depart after childbirth and then a loathing and dislike follows; they loose their desire and taste for these things and care no more for them. (Often these longings are conveyed to the child, and remains with it for many years of its life.) They have unnatural fancies for things that they would not have any desire for in the non-pregnant state. Sometimes the psoric patient will have desires for fats, greasy things, rich pastries and sweetmeats, which when eaten induce bilious attacks and all sorts of gastric disturbances. Indeed, those bilious states are often ushered in by these longings and desires; they are forewarnings of internal gastric warfare. Often the things that were very agreeable and palatable to them, become repugnant and they take a great dislike to them; for instance, the tobacco user; he suddenly takes a dislike to his pipe, or his accustomed chew, and for a time it is impossible for him to use it or to even touch it. 


 After this condition passes away, which is usually in a short time, he resumes his old habits again with renewed vigor and relish. We see in these things, disturbances of psora : all toxic drugs become sooner or later prime disturbers of psora or the chronic miasms in general, but particularly psora. In syphilis or sycosis we know how rigid are the rules laid down by the regular school of practitioners with reference to diet; all stimulating or irritating foods are prohibited as are also narcotics of all kinds; beers, wines, liquors of all kinds are strictly prohibited. Why? Because of their positive action in restoring the eruption or the gonorrhoeal discharge; they know full well that they can not suppress it while the patient partakes of these things. As this is true in disease, it is also true in health; the difference is only in the difference of the organism's sensitivity, the organism, being more sensitive and more easily aroused when diseased than in health. Often in health the patient may be able to use tea, coffee or spirituous liquors for many years without being especially disturbed, but when diseased or after some severe illness, they may never be able again to partake of those thing, which were apparently harmless before, without suffering or disturbance from them. There is another thought that I wish to bring forward, and that is that the desires and the cravings for the unnatural things to eat, together, with the desires and cravings for narcotics, such as tea, coffee, tobaccos, or any stimulant for that matter, have often their origin in psora or pseudo-psora, that is, the miasm so weakens the organism or so lowers its vitality that the great life centers are unable to supply the necessary nerve force; hence, the call for those things which fill temporality force these central impulses to increased activity, and for a while the demand is satisfied, until a reaction comes, as it always does in time. Then follows a lagging of these centers as they no longer can respond to the stimuli, which has to be increased; but the time comes when it fails and a new stimulant has to be selected and so on until stimulants fail entirely. Thus a patient may begin with meat and follow with tea, coffee, then tobacco and finally end with intoxicating liquors; partaking of the greater, as the lesser fails to satisfy, fails to bring the nerve force up to the desired standard. This often is the beginning of a history of an intemperate life, by simply yielding to the demand of the organism which should have or might have been brought up to a perfect standard of health through the law of cure. Psoric people like sweets, syrups, candies, while the tubercular craves potatoes, meats of all kinds. 


 These cravings, desires, likes and dislikes of our patients are symptoms that stand high in therapeutic value in making a selection of our remedy, as they are basic miasmatic symptoms, next in importance to the perverted mental phenomena in disease. They all however belong to the phenomena of perverted life action, and I am glad to know that they can not be attached to pathology and do not come under any of its forms. Besides all these, there are cravings and longings for travel, change of place, vocation and manner of living; they want something and they know what that something is, which is characteristic of these despondent, weak, debilitated, psoric patients, who seem to never gain any strength and whose disease can not be located. 


 Stomach symptoms of psora and pseudo-psora 
 An organ of so complex a function as the stomach has, of course, many symptoms that acknowledge the presence of psora in the organism. We will only attempt to give some of the more prominent ones, or those that may be considered characteristic, or to a great degree, pathognomonic of the psoric or tubercular patient. Usually the action of the miasms is quite marked in some other parts of the organism before its action is seen upon the stomach. 
 We must look deeper and farther than the gastric function for the phenomena of indigestion. Indigestion has behind it, as have all other disturbed functions, a disturbed life force; and a gastric expression is as much a secondary expression as in erysipelas, eczema or any eruption on the skin; or in other words, a gastric disturbance of any nature, whatever, is nothing more or less than the attempts of nature to, in some degree, 
 Indigestion begins in the very cell itself, in its molecular movement, which is from its periphery to its center, from the vitalizing nucleus to its circumference, and as the vitalized point receives the non-vitalized or new food matter, it vitalizes it and projects it outward. Thus, this continuous process is kept up as long as life lasts. In diseased conditions, or in people who are over fed, these vitalizing centers are overworked, and the nutrient or food material is rushed too rapidly through these vitalizing centers and the result is an imperfectly vitalized tissue, which is soft, flabby, lacking the strength and vigor of a healthy structure; and indigestion, gastric disturbances arise in all their disturbing forms and varieties. We sometimes see this condition arise where healing processes are taking place in wounds and ulcers, where the granulations are stimulated by local measures (or by local remedial agents, such as Calendula, Balsam of peru or any similar local stimuli). This over-action appears in the form of false granulations which break down suddenly, being unable to form a healthy and permanent tissue. Sometimes we see such nervous symptoms arising in psoric and pseudo-psoric patients, "as weak, all-gone feeling in the stomach," demanding food at unnatural periods. "Hunger at night" is so prominent a symptom in very psoric patients that it can always be relied upon; hunger soon after partaking of food is also peculiar to psora; hunger with an all-gone sensation in the pit of the stomach at 10 a.m.  or between 10 and 11 a.m.  will be found in pseudo-psoric patients, or when the tubercular taint is marked. This is very peculiar, but it is very frequently met with in general practice.  


 But it is just such strange perversions that are to be found under the action of this deepest of all miasm, pseudo-psora. On the other hand we meet with just the opposite symptoms, in very psoric people, such as fullness, bloating, great distention due to the accumulation of gases or to flatulent conditions and food fermentation; rumblings, gurglings, and all such commotion due to the formation of gases, are found not only in the stomach but throughout the entire gastro-intestinal tract. Any other miasm of course can be present in the organism, but still these symptoms are of purely psoric origin. Sour or bitter eructations come up in the throat frequently; sometimes these risings from the stomach taste of food recently eaten, or they may be oily or greasy; not infrequently they are accompanied with heartburn, with nausea, faint feelings at the pit of the stomach, with a conflux of saliva to the mouth (waterbrash), acid eructations with burning in the oesophagus, with or without hunger, with hunger relieved by eating ever so little. This is sometimes followed with fullness in the stomach, chest or throat. Psoric patients have repugnance to boiled foods; they want everything fried, if possible, and highly seasoned; they like highly seasoned foods. Tubercular patients crave meat; they will eat it from infancy and nothing satisfies their hunger or cravings but meat. I am fully convinced in my own mind that meat is not a natural food; it is very unnatural; indeed, it is more of a stimulant than a food. Its prolonged use as a food induces similar conditions in the organisms to that found under the use of alcohol, that is, where it is used excessively. The capillaries become engorged and distended, the heart action weak, soft, the pulse easily compressed, the muscles of the heart soft, or the action of the organ becomes imperfect, the face flushes easily and the blood piles up in the lungs and brain when they exercise, attempt climbing heights, or run fast, such as running for a car of for a train. Human beings will live longer, endure more hardships, cold or heat when meat is not used in their diet at all. The porters in China and Japan have probably as great endurance as any people in the world, yet they subsist entirely on a vegetable diet, largely rice. 


 When these meat eaters come to me suffering with bad heart action or gastric difficulties, I at once cut out meat from their diet, and it is surprising how quickly the heart action improves, the food in the stomach ceases to ferment, the foul breath disappears, and the gaseous formations soon no longer exist. Meat, grease, and vegetables do not mix well in these psoric or tubercular patients. Before they are past puberty they are employing a physician for gastric difficulties. I speak now not only from experience in practice, but from a personal standpoint. I have eaten no meat for six years or flesh of any kind except at long intervals small quantities of fish. Previous to my taking up the vegetable diet, I had poor heart action; a run of two blocks would almost take my life, caused from labored heart action. Now I can run a mile if necessary. The heart action began to improve at once, there is no more headache, no belching, no sour eructations, no gases, no unpleasant taste in the mouth, and above all there are no unnatural cravings or desires for highly seasoned food or fancy dishes. My diet consists wholly of vegetables, fruits, cereals and nuts. The mind is always clear, the appetite regular and normal in every way. Meat, then, we see, is a disease producer through its stimulating qualities and through its power to disturb or arouse latent psora, to say nothing of the great probability of the meat itself being diseased; hence psoric patients should east sparingly of it, if not avoid it entirely, when psora or sycosis is very marked. 


 Returning to the symptoms of psora in the stomach, we notice the constant gnawing at the pit of the stomach, cold, or hot sensations, sensations of weight, of fullness, of tightness, of goneness; sensations of heavy weights, as of a stone or lump in the stomach, beatings and pulsations, throbbings, sensations of constriction, oppression after eating, shortness of breath, vertigoes, giddiness, anxiety, epigastric tenderness; sweat breaks out after eating, weary, heavy, sleepy, drowsy after eating, falls asleep, can not keep awake after a meal; eating causes pain, colic, nausea, vomiting, or is followed by diarrhoeas and gastro-intestinal disturbances of many forms and varieties. 


 Most of the aggravations of psora in the stomach are after eating, for instance after meals the patient suffers with headaches, flatulence or flatulent dyspepsia weariness, sleepiness, nausea, vomiting, beating of the heart, coughing, pains in different parts of the body, especially in the region of the liver. In the hypochondria or epigastrium, they have pains often of a cutting or colicky nature; very many of the stomach symptoms are temporarily relieved by eating, by hot drinks, by hot applications, by the belching of gas and by gentle motion. A sycotic patient, especially a child, is worse by eating any kind of food, whatever, and is relieved by lying on the stomach, or by pressure over the region of the stomach, and by violent motion, walking, rocking, shaking, etc. The stomach pains of sycosis are always crampy or colicky, paroxysmal, and relieved by motion and by hard pressure. A psoric patient is afraid of being touched when he has pain, even the slightest pressure cannot be endured. There are very many other symptoms of psoric origin referring to the stomach; especially those with reference to the malignancies, which will be fully dealt with in Vol. II of this work. In conclusion of this subject, a few words might be said with reference to the diet of a psoric patient. They can digest meat even better than a sycotic patient. Meat in the sycotic, stimulates or assists in developing the uric acid and the gouty diathesis; they, too, do better under a vegetable diet. If nitrogenous foods have to be given to a sycotic patient, they had better be in the form of nut foods, beans and mild cheese, etc. The tubercular patient thrives better on fats and fat foods than do those suffering from any other taint; he also requires much salt in his food; indeed the tubercular patients are the great salt eaters; starches are not easily digested by them, and frequently their use has to be avoided almost entirely; this is especially true in young infants. Tubercular patients crave meat, as has been mentioned, never getting enough of it; many of them, however, reject fat meats, preferring to eat the lean portions. The psoric patient craves sugar or sweets of any kind, he can never get enough of them and he is forever filling his stomach full of sweetmeats; this purely psoric symptom is very frequently found under Sulphur. 


 The reader will remember that his attention has already been called to this fact "that the cravings and longings of the patient, are basic miasmatic phenomena of great therapeutic value". 
 A syphilitic patient has an aversion to meats. In febrile states or in liver troubles, psoric patients often take a great aversion to sweets and crave acids of all kinds, fruit acids, lemonade, and buttermilk, otherwise they love sweets; they are just in their element when partaking of the sweets of the soda fountain. Sycotic and psoric patients are relieved by hot drinks and prefer their food hot or warm, while syphilitic and tubercular patients frequently desire cold things to eat or drink. Sometimes a tubercular patient will crave salt meats, salt fish such as cod-fish, mackerel or salt herring, smoked ham or smoked meats. He likes these forms of flesh, largely for the salt they contain. Potatoes are another article of diet the tubercular patient craves. He will let you cut out any other article of diet but potatoes. The child 20 months old will gorge itself on this article of diet. A sycotic patient would prefer beer, rich gravies and fat meats but prefers to have it well seasoned with salt, pepper, etc. These patients herein described are, of course, typical cases, and any modification of these pictures can be found in mixed miasms. 


 Chest, heart and lungs 
 As no part or portion, of the organism is free from the presence of the miasms, when they are at all present, so the chest cavity with its contents is a fruitful soil for both these benign and malignant shadings of miasmatic action. The regular seat of the pseudo-psoric miasms is often found in the respiratory organs, developing into those malignant states known as phthisis-pulmanalis, tuberculosis, consumption, and other names which denote prolonged and fearful histories of sufferings and death. So many times we find these miasms lying in an incipient state of slumber, and many of us are totally ignorant of their presence in the organism until (as it seems to us), with scarcely any warning, they break forth like volcanoes from their slumbers. 


 This should not be so. We should make ourselves acquainted with their latent expressions, and the symptoms of their presence, long before they have taken such a deep hold of this vital organ, the lungs. This we can do by becoming acquainted with just such phenomena as have already been presented; we must known something about this physiological difference which distinguished the psoric from the pseudo-psoric. They are vastly unlike when we study them separately and yet we can not separate them fully, as they owe their existence to this combination, as expressed in the word pseudo-psora. These pseudo-psoric or tubercular symptoms, I say resemble both psora and syphilis, as a child may resemble both parents, and yet that distinction is often difficult to demonstrate, if we were called to do so. But as we have studied the head, face, ears, eyes and the different parts, and notice their distinguishing features, so can we study the chest, itself, as well as the chest organs. First of all, we must repeat to ourselves the rule "that psora itself gives us no physiological changes of structure, that another miasm must be present in order to procure a physiological change in the structure or shape of a part or organ". With this in view and armed with the additional knowledge that syphilis is the only miasm that can, or does give us false physiological expressions or changes in the organism (any miasm may give us pathological changes, but not physiological changes), even to changes in the bony framework itself. 


 Examine a tubercular bone or see the resemblance to syphilis, see the changes of structure and form, see the false formations and false expressions in that osseous structure; but we have shown this more fully under our heading of scrofulosis, versus syphilis, so we will hasten to give the psoric and pseudo-psoric symptoms and changes of the region coming under this heading. If we examine very psoric patients, we will see no changes in the lines, curves, and contour of the chest, they are natural; but let us see what we can find when we examine the tubercular chest; the curves and lines are imperfect, the chest is often narrow, lacking not only width laterally, but depth antero-posteriorly, the sub-clavicular spaces are hollow, or certain areas are sunken or depressed, quite often one lung is much larger than the other, or the action of one is accelerated and the outer is lessened; one side is fuller than the other, showing a better development and a greater respiratory area, often the expansive power of the lung is greatly limited and the amount of residual air lessened. The breathing of these patients is not so full and resonant, although there may be no impediment or obstruction in the air cells or air passages. The shoulders of these patients are rounded, inclined forward, infringing on the chest area and the free lung action. They are as a rule all poor breathers, in fact they have no desire to take a full respiration; seldom do we find them breathing diaphragmatically, thus the lung never comes to its fullest expansion and the air cells are not all brought into use and simply become diseases from lack of that life giving principle they should receive from the oxygen. For lack of work or use, they atrophy or become useless; the least obstruction glues them together and destroys their office. Soon we find infiltrations with all the history of hepatic changes and finally complete destruction of such portions as are involved. These great air pumps, with their wonderful aerating machinery, should never be neglected, as they furnish to the commerce of the red blood corpuscles that invisible, vitalizing principle so necessary to life. So long as this free exchange of commodity goes on between the atmospheric air and the rd blood corpuscles, we are safe, but as soon as it materially decreases the vitalizing principles also decreases as our invisible food supply diminishes. 


 Disease is largely a matter of imperfect oxidation, no matter what miasm is at the bottom of the trouble; any and all of them affect this process in some manner or other; the psoric, through neurotic processes, as in anaemia; the tubercular as has been demonstrated, in faulty nutrition, and death of the commercial red corpuscles; the sycotic, in imperfect oxidation of the food products and their deposit in the tissues in the form of gouty concretions and lithic formations. These tubercular patients have not energy enough to take a full breath and beside they are afraid of cold air, especially if there is any exposure or chance of chilling the body. It is surprising how long they will endure a bed-room atmosphere, in which the lungs have partaken of the air over and over again.  


 They should be forced, if possible, to live consistent with their miasmatic taint, and to promote health and strength. No wonder they improve when they take the open air treatment, as it is given in the Adirondacks and such exposed open air rest cures. Indeed these patients, suffering with the tubercular taint, need and abundance of fresh-air; they should always be in some ozone belt where oxygen is not at a premium. The devitalizing action of the blood in pseudo-psora demands constant purification of the life stream by coming in contact with large volumes of pure oxygen, or it soon becomes overwhelmed with detrite material that a lowered vitality is unable to take care of. Of course there are thousands of patients today who die of many diseases other than lung trouble, that are not classified under the tubercular disease, but which nevertheless are based upon this pseudo-psoric miasm. Often we notice a single symptom in these tubercular patients that may be persistent for years and on the least exposure to cold, they become hoarse; it is not the simple huskiness of psora, it is a deeper thing, the voice is coarse, deep, with base-like chest tones, the throat is slightly sore at times, a rawness and a croak-like sound develops in the voice, there is a constant desire to hawk or clear the throat of a scanty, viscid mucus. The sore throat of Hepar and Phosphorus remind us of it. The coughs of psora are dry, teasy, spasmodic, and annoying, and are bronchial; but the cough of the tubercular patient is deep and prolonged, giving us the lower chest tones; it is worse in the morning and when the patient first lies down in the evening. 


 The expectoration in psora is mucus usually, scanty and tasteless, while the tubercular expectoration is usually purulent or muco-purulent. In advanced cases it is greenish yellow, often offensive and usually sweetish to the taste or salty. The salt or sweetish taste can usually be depended upon. Sometimes it smells musty or offensive, or it is heavy and sinks in water; again, it may be bloody or followed with haemorrhages. Quite often the cough of the tubercular patient is deep, ringing and hollow with no expectoration or none to speak of. The syphilitic is recognized by one or two distinct barks like that of a dog. The tubercular may assimilate it somewhat in those early dry coughs, before any breaking down of the lung tissue has taken place. We are all familiar with the rĂ¢les and sounds peculiar to this disease, they are numerous and often peculiar to these tubercular changes. These coughs are often so dry and tight that they induce headaches, or the whole body is shaken by their explosive like paroxysms. Frequently these patients, who have suffered for some time with one of these chronic coughs, become surly, cross and ill-disposed, yet we know that they re the most hopeful of all patients as to the outcome. They seldom give up or think of death, in fact it is the last thing they think of and sometimes it is very difficult to convince them hat they are incurable; indeed, they are apt to dispense with your services if you insist upon it. They are the last ones of give up the ship, always hopeful, always looking to the physician for help, always asking when they can be cured and how long it will take, even when dissolution has far advanced and life is at a low ebb. They are always planning for the future, building air castles, ever ready to accept any proffered help or promise of a cure; they are seldom sceptical of results and, therefore, often become a willing prey to the charlatan, the quack and the miraculous healer; thus they become a victim to every and any form of treatment that may be presented to them. We all have met his mental picture, although we may not all have fully recognized its meaning, or the persistency or the constancy of its presence. 


 We have not spoken of the glandular changes that take place in this disease, especially in the cervical region which is so positive a symptom of a tubercular diathesis, and which often precedes all other symptoms referring to lung changes; nor yet have we spoken of the oppressions about the chest, the weakness, the anxiety, the difficult respiration or the labored inspiration, the pain, the neuralgias and the suffering that only the afflicted ones can tell for themselves. It is a study in itself to see these tubercular patients struggle for the restoration of their healthy; they will do most anything, climb mountains, when they ought to be at rest, exercise when they should be quiet, take journeys by land and by sea, when they should be at home enjoying their last days in peace and quietness. They stop at nothing-drugs, diet, climate and treatments of all kinds, until everything has failed and often all their means exhausted, they even then have hope of a cure or of prolonged life. 


 There are may other latent symptoms that have not been mentioned, symptoms that are often wrapped in mystery, symptoms of which we do not always comprehend their meaning or value; some of these are that sense of great exhaustion, easily made tired, the least over exertion exhausts beyond that which is natural, they are always tired, never seem to get rested "I was born tired", we hear them say; tired at night, tired even after sleep; as the day advances, they become better, or as the sun ascends in the heavens, their strength revives a little, as it descends they loose it again. How frequently I have examined the urine as well as making a careful physical examination of the whole organism, hoping in vain to find the cause of this loss of strength, and in the end decided that my patient's failing strength was due to a tubercular taint which was sapping, slowly but surely, the life. Again these patients suffer with neuralgias, prosopalgias, sciatica, insomnia, hysteria and all forms of nervous affections that are persistent and have a specific nature about their action, that is peculiar to a tubercular diathesis lying behind them, which lends them their dominantly persistent aspect. For years a persistent headache may be the only active symptom we find outside the many physiological expressions of the disease; again I have seen a profound hysteria develop and remain with the patient for years, before a pulmonary lesion was discovered, and when the lung lesion made its appearance, the nervous affection departed and vice versa as the lung improved; often a severe form of dysmenorrhoea kept back or for a time stayed the development of the disease in the lung itself. Of course many of these intermediary expressions are often of a psoric nature, or the psoric element will dominate until it has fully aroused the tubercular element. Many a case of insanity has developed from a tubercular meningeal inflammation, either from a diffuse tubercular infiltration or from tubercular growths of the pia mater. This is another way of saving the lung; the maniacal paroxysms often increase or decrease with these tubercular crops that come and go upon the membrane. We get meningeal pain in children; it is frequently from this cause that they scream or cry out in the night as soon as they fall asleep. 


 But to return to the latent premonitory symptoms of lung trouble, we will continue our study of latent miasmatic symptoms. The aggravation of symptoms in the tubercular patients shows the parental nature of its old syphilitic basis. Tubercular patients are often worse in the night, which they dread, and they long for morning, as also does the syphilitic patient. Look out for disease that has a persistent nightly aggravation, as it means much sometimes, no matter what the pathology may be; it has a deeper meaning than the ordinary aggravation suggests. 
 Another thought that suggests itself here, is the non-resistance of the tissue in tubercular subjects, the slightest bruise suppurates; the strong tendency is to pustulation or to the formation of pustules. The same may be said of the expectoration from the lungs; its pus-like nature and its copiousness are features to be considered. The strong tendency to the enlargement of the lymphatic glands, the overworked lymphatic system, and indeed, latent hereditary syphilis nears the same relation to these pseudo-psoric subjects, that sycosis does to gout or to the gouty diathesis and lithic deposits. I make no distinction between the tubercular diathesis and the scrofulous, they are quite the same-the only difference is in the degree of the psoric and the tubercular combination, with probably the conditions of climate, race and other similar associations. In an article heated "The Scrofulous Versus the Syphilitic", I have endeavored to demonstrate that fact. The multiple expressions and modifications of the disease, often interferes with our seeing the two relationships. 


 Some members of a family will escape the chronic blepharitis or the ophthalmia of a latent tubercular condition and often the throat or bronchial catarrhs are the only active expressions of the disease. This is often due to the changes and defence of a strong, healthy parental influence, a fact which we must keep constantly before us in our study of these latent tubercular individuals, or we may be easily turned aside from a true conception of their true miasmatic state. 


 Heart 
 In our study of this organ, we find few tubercular diseases or manifestations. The psoric and the sycotic element strongly pervades in organic or even functional disturbances of the heart. Here is where the syco-psoric element predominates, especially in valvular and cardiac changes, which so frequently bring about a fatal issue in our own day. We have many psoric symptoms that manifest themselves in sensations, such as sensations of weakness, goneness, fullness, heaviness and soreness about the heart. A rush of blood to the chest, in the young or rapidly growing youth, is often a tubercular symptom, just as they have a rush of blood to the face or to any part of the body. Violent palpitation with beating of the whole body, is found in both the tubercular and psoric patients. In psora, they have violent hammering and beating about the heart, due to reflexes, such as gastric disturbances, flatulence and uterine irritation. Sycosis produces the same, from reflex rheumatic troubles, especially if local applications are employed to relieve the pain. Sensations as of a band about the body in the region about the heart, may be said to be due to psora. The mental and heart symptoms often alternate and vie with each other. It may be said that the majority of psoric heart symptoms can be attributed directly to psora, while in sycosis or syphilis, they are secondary or are due to secondary causes. A psoric patient suffering with cardiac troubles, has more or less anxiety, more or less fear in heart disease, while the syphilitic or the sycotic have very little mental disturbances, none to speak of, even at critical periods of the disease. 


 They may have heart trouble for years, which causes them no special inconvenience, save perhaps occasional dyspnoea, or some pain. These patients die suddenly with no warning; they are those whose lives snuff out like a candle. Very many of the psoric heart troubles are functional, and are accompanied with much anxiety, mental distress, with pain and neuralgia, often of a sharp, piercing, cutting nature. The heart troubles of tubercular are accompanied with fainting, temporary loss of vision, ringing in the ears, pallor and great weakness, worse sitting up and better lying down; the psoric patient is better by keeping quiet, lying down usually; the sycotic patient i better by motion, as walking, riding, gentle exercise. The tubercular patients, suffering with heart troubles, can not climb mountains at all, as the disturbed circulation affects the brain and they become, dizzy, faint, often fainting away when they reach a rarefied atmosphere. The brain becomes anaemic at a high altitude. The oppression and anxiety of psoric patients is worse in the morning, usually, and their pains are worse from motion, laughing, coughing, etc. The stitching pains almost kill the patient when he moves. Heart affections from fear, disappointment, loss of friends or overjoy are psoric; these patients think they have heart trouble and are going to die, but the sycotic and syphilitic patients as a rule deny that they have cardiac troubles, or they are usually unaware of it. 


 We have psoric heart difficulties from eating or drinking, generally worse in the evening or soon after eating. Heart difficulties at night, palpitation on lying down, after eating or during digestion, which are relieved by eructations of gas, but worse on going to sleep and lying on he back; heart pulsations shake the body, and are accompanied with great anxiety and sadness. In sycotic heart troubles, we are more apt to have less demonstration of action than in psora. We have fluttering, throbbing with oppression and difficult breathing at intervals. There is seldom much pain or suffering, unless in rheumatic difficulties, when we may find severe pains, but they are not so constant or persistent as those of psora. Under sycosis we may find much soreness and tenderness which is often worse by motion of the arms. Pain from shoulder to heart to scapula, in rheumatic cardiac troubles, is quite frequently met with in sycosis. Often in sycosis the pulse is soft, slow, easily compressible. We notice it is full, bounding in psoric fevers; and small, thread-like and quick in the tubercular. In fevers of sycotic patients, we do not find the tone or tension as seen in the psoric. Under the prolonged action of hereditary or acquired or tertiary sycosis, the valves become roughened, due to the acid condition of the system, the walls enlarged, the muscles flabby, soft and lacking power, therefore the pulse lacks that tension and that thrill is not present when we press upon the radial pulse. The sycotic patients are as rule, fleshy and puffy; their obesity often lies at the bottom of their dyspnoea and they are constantly gaining in flesh. 


 In the heart troubles of the pseudo-psoric patient the reverse of this takes place and there is a constant and gradual falling away of flesh, rush of blood to the chest and face; frequently the sycotic face becomes blue, cyanotic indeed, there is apt to be a venous congestion or rather stagnation. The dyspnoea of the psoric or the pseudo-psoric is often painful, which is seldom the case in the sycotic. The dropsies, or the anasarcas, of psora or pseudo-psora are always greater than the sycotic, they smother or drown the patient before death takes place; but not often so in the sycotic, their life i snuffed out when you are not looking for it and when you least expect it; they drop out of existence as quickly as an electric light is turned, off, perhaps with one or two sever thrusts of pain, or without pain. We hear of just such case every day in the higher walks of life among the wealthy. Of course this state of things is hastened or intensified by diet, especially when much meat is consumed, or in wine drinkers. Whiskey or beer does not affect the gouty diathesis as do wines, especially imported or spiced wines. Beer is less harmful than the other drinks mentioned, as it is more apt to prevent the deposition of salts of the blood, that deposit themselves in the tissues in the typical tertiary sycosis or gouty diathesis, although all are decidedly hurtful to the organism in the end. This will be more clearly seen in Volume II, as we take up the study more fully, studying each disease under this miasm (that is of sycotic origin). In psora, we must study the pulse, the circulation, the pains, the tension, the neuralgias, the palpitation and the thousand and one sensations. If the beat is not regular in psora, he soon finds it out, where in sycosis, he may never discern it until the case is far advanced and becomes truly organic, then we have the fear of psora, the restlessness, the anxiety, and the cardiac dyspnoea, the pain and many other symptoms already dwelt upon so fully. There are many other symptoms to which we might give attention, but space prevents us from dealing with them farther, as we have a number of other subjects with which to deal. 


 Abdomen 
 In this region we have many symptoms that are quite similar to those recorded of the stomach, such as fullness, distension, flatulence, rumbling of gas, constant commotion and movement of the colon, tat keeps the patient awake at night; pain may, or may not, be one of the symptoms, but if so, the pains are often sharp, shooting or colicky. The true colic, or colic in its worst form, as found under Plumbum or Colocynth, is very apt to have a sycotic element present. We see this in the colicky pains of Rheum and Chamomilla and in bowel troubles of children. Often the simplest kind of food produces colic or pain in the abdomen or throughout the intestinal tract. The abdomen feels full after eating; in psora, and he pains are often accompanied with a feeling of distension or fullness. These symptoms are more apt to be worse in the morning, and are often found in children. We may find empty, gone feelings in the abdomen, similar to those found in the stomach and soon after eating they appear. Again we find a stuffy, full feeling in the abdomen, preventing the patient from eating the normal amount of food; or we sometimes find sensations of constrictions, of bands or cords about the abdomen, pressure in the lower region of the liver, stitches on stooping or bending the body, audible rumblings in the bowels, sensation as if the abdomen were greatly distended or as if it were hanging down, heavy dragging down sensation, crawling, creeping before a chill, sensations as if diarrhoea would set in, especially in the morning, rumbling and gurgling in the abdomen as soon as they eat or drink anything, cramps from eating certain kinds of food, or drink, such as the drinking of milk or cold water, etc., or the eating of potatoes, beans and many other foods that do not agree with these patients. Many of these patients have a tubercular diathesis, but of course, psora predominates throughout their lives, or at least it is the basic principle of their disturbances. 


 Hernia, while there is a strongly psoric element present, is seldom found outside of the tubercular organism. We most frequently find hernia in flabby, soft-muscled people. Hernia is due to this lack of tone of the muscular system throughout the whole abdominal region; it is not a true psoric development. 


 The lymphatic involvement is also pseudo-psoric, as is mesentery complications. The shame of the tubercular abdomen is saucer-shaped or like that of a large plate turned bottom side up. The muscles are flabby and have an inclination toward muscular weakness. All the abdominal pains and sufferings of psora are relieved by heat, and many times by gentle pressure. Peritoneal inflammations and other difficulties are tubercular, even secondary involvement (unless infection due to sycosis or other cause is present). The colic of sycosis is better by bending double, by motion or hard pressure; this it not so of psora; we often find the worst forms of constipation or inactivity of the bowels in psoric or pseudo-psoric patients. Sometimes in disease states of the abdomen, the patient is very sensitive to motion. In psora we often have a beating or throbbing as of a pulse in the abdomen, while in tubercular patients, you can often feel the beating of the carotids through the abdominal walls. In tubercular children, we find ulceration of the umbilicus with a yellowish discharge, which smells offensive, carrion-like or similar to a Hepar-sulph. pus. We have this same thing in a sycotic child, with the tubercular element present, but the pus is yellowish, green, watery, thin, excoriating and offensive, often of a fishy or fish brine odor. In menstrual difficulties, we may find reflex pains, spasmodic symptoms and bearing down sensations, especially in the tubercular patient. The skin in the tubercular person is pale, with an underlying bluish tint, showing the venous stagnation; often the veins show quite distinctly beneath the integument. 


 The psoric or pseudo-psoric patients are easily chilled about the abdomen, causing colic or diarrhoea, dysentery and many severe bowel troubles to follow. Look out for the tubercular child during the first and second years of its life; keep the abdomen and the solar plexus warm, as a chilling of the solar plexus means death to many of them. We were in the habit, in the past years, to attribute the so-called "summer complaint" to foods or to hot weather, but we were mistaken in this, as it was not the heat alone nor the diet in particular, but the much neglected protection of the solar plexus. The cold nights, or early mornings, are the cause of the majority of these cases; the evenings and first part of the night being very warm, they uncover their little bodies to get relief, and sleeping soundly on until the earth becomes cooled and the atmosphere of the room chilled, and thus we have these midnight visitations, that lie at the bottom as a secondary cause of this great fatality in children, due to bowel trouble. A little flannel bandage, as a protection, would many a time have evaded all the trouble. All this tubercular element needs is a slight chilling of the body, or even a single part of the body, to arouse a tubercular inflammation or congestion (for that is what these dysenteries are in children), and set up a conflagration that can not be extinguished before it destroys the young and tender life. 


 The bowels and intestinal tract 
 In this extensive region of unusual functional activity, we have a prolific field for miasmatic action; for we find that where the function of a part is complex or multiple, the miasms often bring forth or manifest their most annoying symptoms; this is especially true of the intestinal tract. Death in a very brief space of time has often resulted from some of the more malignant combinations of miasmatic action. Syphilitic children have died from bowel troubles from twenty-four to forty-eight hours; tubercular, within a week. Often in hereditary syphilis we have seen the whole force of the disease center suddenly upon the intestinal tract and a watery discharge for twenty-four hours drain the system of its last vital drop, and death follow from exhaustion. 
 The diarrhoeas of psora are often induced by overeating; the patient being always hungry, of course often eats beyond his capacity of digestion, thus the intestinal digestion is overcrowded, which produces one of nature's own catharsis. The movements are usually watery or consist of imperfectly digested food; quite often they are accompanied with an offensive odor and with colicky pains or with a cutting colic. They occur usually in the morning, that being the general hour of their aggravation. We see this in the diarrhoeas of Podophyllum, Sulphur and Aloes. Tubercular patients may have this morning aggravation in bowel troubles, but it is nevertheless a psoric aggravation, and while psora patients are aggravated by cold, the tubercular persons are still more sensitive, and the effects of colds are more dangerous of life. 


 In the cholera infantum of syphilitic children, we meet with complete arrest of digestion, with purging and vomiting, with drowsiness and stupor, even to coma, or with spasms, convulsions and often death. A similar state of things is sometimes witnessed in the tubercular child; although the symptoms are seldom so suddenly fatal, yet the result is often very similar. In the psoric and the pseudo-psoric bowel difficulties, we often have gone, empty feelings in the abdominal region; sometimes it is a great weakness after stool, felt only in the region of the abdomen. In the tubercular patient, we have the general exhaustion or loss strength, a feeling as if all his vitality is leaving him at each evacuation of the bowels. Usually the true syphilitic or tubercular patients are worse at night; they are driven out of bed by their diarrhoea, sometimes this is accompanied with profuse, warm or cold perspiration, which is very exhausting and debilitating. In seven cases out of ten, the face is pale and earthy, eyes sunken, with dark rings around them, lips very red or bluish, loss of appetite, rapid emaciation, prostration and often accompanied with much thirst. As the disease advances the eyes become more sunken, the face more pale and the prostration increases until brain symptoms suddenly develop and death follows quickly. It is os characteristic of these tubercular children suffering from bowel troubles to develop a sudden brain stasis or brain metastasis of some form. Sometimes the tubercular manifestations in the brain alternate with a bowel difficulty, but we do not look for any such fatal issues in psora. No, psora is not so destructive to life; no such developments arise as are found due to the mixed miasm, pseudo-psora. 


 Veratrum alba, Arsenicum, Camphor and Cuprum met are good types of such diarrhoeas or dysenteries, so characteristic are they of patients of a well marked tubercular diathesis. From a state of apparent health today, they are seized with a sudden attack of dysentery and within forty-eight to sixty hours they are dead; look out for them in the mouth of August and the first part of September, when they are passing through that trying time of the year that tests whether they are tubercular of psoric. These cases will differentiate themselves readily, or at least with the varying of the thermometer, as the earth suddenly cools down at night after a sultry August day. 
 Podophyllum, too, is a remedy that fully represents a certain type of these cases, with their painless, copious, yellowish and very offensive stool, with its aggravations night and morning, as well as its aggravations from the use of milk. A tubercular child can't use cow's milk in any shape; the casein has to be modified before they can digest it at all. They thrive better on anything else than milk. 
 Every physician has had troubles of his won with milk. How many times I have wished there was never such a thing a milk in existence, when these anti-milk children came into my hands. Give some of these delicate little tubercular patients a good dose of milk, and you can get a proving of anything you want out of it, from a dysentery to a convulsion or spasm, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, colic and gastric pain of any order or degree, with febrile states, reflexes to the brain and anything to order you may ask for; these children are no friend to milk; indeed milk is their enemy. 


 We are at a loss sometimes to know just what to nourish them with; often we are completely baffled, but for the ever present help we find in the administration of similia, we should often fail. 
 These tubercular children may have diarrhoea every now and again from the day they are born until they are two or three years old. The least error in diet or exposure to cold produces it, as they seem to have no resistive force whatever; much of this is due to impaired glandular secretions in the whole alimentary tract, and often tubercular changes in the glands themselves, or to their imperfect action. Another marked feature of the tubercular babies (and what I mean by a tubercular baby in this sense is one who has any taint of the miasm present) is that when they begin the eruption of the first teeth the diarrhoea often begins, or else if present, they grow worse and continue throughout the entire period of dentition, coming and going at the appearance of every eruption of a tooth. Sometimes these attacks are violent and prolonged and often endanger the young life. Co-operative with this state of things in these pseudo-psoric patients is that loss of power or inability of the system to assimilate bone-making material from the food. There is a close relationship between this non-assimilation of the lime or the calcareous agents for bone material, and the diarrhoeas of these children. The membranes covering the teeth are hard, firm and unyielding, requiring great pressure to soften them so that the teeth can push their way through. This great tension, if prolonged for any length of time, together with the deficiency of bone constructing material, induces often, it seems, reflexly this gastro or intestinal war, with all its suffering to the young life. In sycosis, we see none of this; sycosis usually gives us colic, until we are tired of hearing the patients cry of suffering; occasionally it has diarrhoeas, but if so, they are of a spasmodic, colicky nature, and accompanied with a slimy mucus stool and with griping colic and rectal tenesmus. The stools of Rheum, Chamomilla, Mag, carb. are typical of this miasm. Psora also ahs a spasmodic offensive diarrhoea, which usually relieves the patients of their sufferings, but they have no such exhaustion, no such persistency as we find under pseudo-psora or sycosis. 


 Croton. tig. Gives us a stool that is found in these tubercular children, who are strongly tainted with sycosis. Sarsaparilla has, as a rule, all the miasms present, but sycosis is especially prominent. Sanguinaria, Phosphorus, Kali-carb., Tuberculinum and Stannum are quite typical of the tubercular discharges; the 
 These miasms are constantly expressing on the organism their own creative energy, which is of course antagonistic to life; sometimes we see it in lysis or by a crisis. In lysis as is seen in those slow and smouldering fires of some chronic malady, or by a crisis, overwhelming the already vitiated life force. 
 Sometimes in the tubercular child, the stools are ashy or grayish in color, showing lack of bile matter. Sycotic diarrhoeas have the most pain and the stools are forcibly ejected from the rectum. Croton tig., Chamomilla, Laurocerasus and Colocynthis and that class of remedies represent this idea. The intestinal pains of sycosis as has been mentioned, are of an extremely colica nature, and they make the patient angry, as a rule. Sycotic bowel troubles, whether they be diarrhoeas or haemorrhoids, produce the same irritability. They are cross, irritable, with their pains. 
 I have often noticed that the stools are very changeable, usually greenish yellow mucus, seldom bloody (bloody stools, tubercular), greenish, watery, sour smelling, with cutting colic; even the child smells sour in marked cases of sycosis of a hereditary nature (child smells musty or mouldy, tubercular). In severe cases of bowel troubles of a low order in the tubercular, the child is fretful, peevish and whiny, and does not want to be touched or even looked at; prostration after stools, marked. This is not so in sycosis, and the little patients do not wish to be left alone, as when the tubercular element predominates, but are anxious to be constantly rocked, carried or moved about in some way; the colics are better by firm pressure or lying on the abdomen; they are aggravated by eating fruit, but the tubercular are aggravated by milk, potatoes, meat, by motion, or any disturbance by movement. In marked tubercular children we often notice before stools nausea with gagging; the child gags and tries to vomit, but often does not succeed. Although we have marked cases of nausea and vomiting of all the contents of the stomach soon after eating and drinking. 


 Dulcamara has a typical sycotic stool, which is yellowish, green and watery, white or green mucus expelled with much force, is acid and corrosive, like all the stools of sycosis. It, too, is changeable and worse during a falling barometer; we have the same griping colic, the tenesmus, the impatience and the irritability. Psora has a diarrhoea coming on from fright, grief, bad news or any undue ordeal; also when making preparation for any unusual event; it also has a diarrhoea form taking cold or the slightest exposure (from getting wet, sycosis). The grass green stools of Ipecac, Mag. carb., Croton tig., Gratiola, Arg. nit., and such remedies, are apt to be of a sycotic nature. The true psoric stool may be any color, but it is usually modified in color, generally offensive and not very painful it is aggravate by cold, motion, eating and drinking cold things; better by warm drinks and hot things to eat, rest, quite warm applications to the abdomen. 


 The constipation of psora is very marked; it is stubborn, persistent and there is no action of the bowels whatever; no desire to stool the stool is dry, scanty, hard, difficult of expulsion, sometimes we have alternations of constipation and diarrhoeas; constipation with pains remote, such as headaches, pain in the liver or region of the liver; constipation with basilar or temporal headaches; constipation with drowsiness, sleepiness, stupor and heaviness, with no desire to work; constipation with foul breath, foul coated tongue, nausea and loss of appetite; constipation with no stool for days, although there is a frequent desire for stool; stool hard, comes in round balls like the excrement of sheep; stool looks dark and dry as if burnt; where there is much slimy mucus, especially if it is constant, there is apt to be a tubercular taint; or where much blood passed after stool, will call our attention to the diathesis also. Haemorrhages from the rectum always call our attention to a tubercular element in the system, although we see bleeding haemorrhoids also in sycosis, but sycosis has great pruritis and usually has a scanty, thin, watery, discharge oozing form the rectum that has a fishy or fish-brine smell to it. Pin worms or intestinal worms are also of a psoric origin, but are found more plentiful in children with a tubercular taint; sensations of crawling and creeping is quite characteristic of psora. 


 Rectal diseases alternating with heart, chest or lung troubles, will be found to have a tubercular origin, especially is this true of asthma and respiratory difficulties; for instance, haemorrhoids, if operated upon or suppressed in any way, are followed by lung difficulties or asthma, and not infrequently by heart trouble. Strictures in the rectum, sinuses, fistules and fistulous pockets are all of a tubercular origin or of pseudo-psoric nature, but are greatly magnified by sycosis. Prolapsus of the rectum in young children will be found in tubercular also. Cancerous affections, malignant growths and such diseases have as a rule all the miasms present and especially the tubercular and the sycotic elements combined. Of course psora can never be left out of malignancies; no matter what other element may combine with it, it fathers them all. Indeed, it is first cause in all diseases or diseased states. The bowel difficulties of tubercular children are so frequently accompanied with febrile states, delirium, gastric disturbance, vomiting, purging, with exhaustive, copious stools. These tubercular children are easily and readily known by the numerous diseases they have to contend with in their childhood days. We know them by the severity of their diseases and the frequency in which we have to deal with all these acute and dangerous processes to the young life. 


 Urinary organs,homeopathy urinary tract infection
 Throughout the whole urinary tract, we find latent symptoms of all the miasms. Of the true chronic miasms, psora and sycosis take an active part in the production of disease in these organs. The tubercular element, however, will be found to be not entirely absent by any means for it is the tubercular, plus the sycotic element, that gives us many of the so-called malignancies and severe diseases of these organs. 
 The tubercular patient complains of anxiety and much loss of strength after urination. Often in psoric children, we have retention of urine when the body becomes chilled; we see this also in old people; great distention of the bladder, with fullness, as if it was extremely full, is another symptom; sense of constriction, too, is often present. The urine in any psoric patient will pass off frequently involuntarily when sneezing, coughing or laughing. There is not much pain in passing urine in psora, generally a slight smarting, due often to acidity of the urine. After fevers in acute diseases, the deposit of psora is usually white or yellowish white, phosphates and similar deposits; occasionally it is pinkish or similar to iron rust. In the tubercular diathesis, especially in the nervous or neurotic patient, it is pale, colorless and copious with very little of solids present. Diabetic patients are, as a rule, strongly tubercular; you will find the tubercular physiology throughout them, with the diathesis strongly marked. If sycosis be present, these cases are of course more malignant in their nature and more fatal. 


 Fibrous changes in the kidneys also have the three miasms present; although the tubercular and sycotic are present in the majority of cases of Bright's disease. The urine of these tubercular-tainted patients is often offensive and easily decomposed, the odor is musty, like old hay, or it is foul smelling, even carrion-like. I have had them send it to me frequently for examination, thinking that they had some fearful and perhaps incurable kidney trouble. In tubercular children, it is involuntary at night (nocturnal enuresis) as soon as they fall asleep. It is also copious; they drench everything, it is so profuse. These cases are only cured by getting at the pseudo-psoric diathesis. This is why Calcarea carb, cures so many of them. Where they scream when urinating, as found under Lycopodium or Sarsaparilla, here we are apt to find a sycotic element present. The sycotic expressions are so numerous, that they can only be fully taken up in the second volume of this work. The majority of those painful spasmodic symptoms depend largely upon the sycotic element, which we find affecting the urethra and bladder. Haematuria will be found more frequently under the tubercular diathesis, but may be found under all miasms; nightly pollutions and all involuntary discharges of semen will be found to have the pseudo-psoric taint behind them. All such weaknesses and expressions are pseudo-psoric. They all are indeed profound expressions of the pseudo-psoric taint. Idiopathic hydrocele can claim the same parentage; you may look for the same element in prostatic troubles, except where acquired sycosis is the exciting medium. In cases where we have a constant loss of the prostatic or seminal fluid, consumption sometimes develops. These are the patient who live in gloom, with depressed spirits, gloomy forebodings, poor digestion, loss of energy, want of memory and all than train of symptoms familiar to us. Often we see a livid or ashy complexion, appetite often voracious, as the system calls for more food than it can properly take care of, when finally gastric derangements follow until the organism fails to perform any function in a proper manner. May of the urinary symptoms of psora are due to reflexes or other diseased states, or in other words, to secondary causes, and especially is this true in women. The majority of renal difficulties, as has been mentioned, have a pseudo-psoric basis, which can be demonstrated by a careful study of all the latent miasmatic symptoms of the whole organism. 

 The sexual sphere 
 In the males, many of these symptoms, have already been mentioned, under our last subject, but many others may be mentioned. The action of psora upon the mental sphere, often centers the mind upon some part or organ of the body; this is especially true in certain nervous temperaments. Their organ of consciousness, which is the controller largely of fear, becomes greatly magnified and the mind centers itself upon some part or portion of the body; often it is upon the heart and they think they have heart disease; again it may be upon the lungs or any organ, no matter where. This is frequently true in the sexual sphere and all sorts of syco-pathic sexual perversions develop in the psoric patients; probably they are even worse in the pseudo-psoric. The mind becomes fixed upon sexual subjects and they have no power of themselves to disengage the mind from this debasing influence, until many of them are dragged down to both physical and mental ruin, often to moral or even to true insanity, or to mania in its worst forms. Occasionally we see it take on some form of monomania, such as a desire to steal, burn or some other desire of a destructive nature. If sycosis is present, especially if it is acquired, it greatly magnifies these conditions. When we consider the loss of strength, the loss of energy, the lack of ability, or desire to make physical or mental efforts of any kind, save that of a mere existence, then we may have some conception of the degenerative power, that lies behind these latent hereditary productions, which are induced by the action of that hydra-headed monster psora and its co-operators, syphilis and sycosis. 


 In women we see probably no greater field for miasmatic action, than is found in the perverseness of the reproductive and sexual functions of that sex. In almost every woman we meet we find some form of dysmenorrhoea and so frequently in these sufferers we find that all their complaints are intensified at, or during the menstrual nisus. Disturbances, not only in the function of the uterus and its appendages, but not infrequently in almost every other organ of the body from the crown of the head to the soles of the feet, all of which are incurred by the presence of the tubercular element when it is present, and of course greatly magnified when the sycotic poison is tainting the stream of like. No function should be perverted in a normal, healthy organism; no function should be painful at least, for pain is always a signal bell of disease, of perverted function. We should have no more than a simple consciousness of the presence of the function of any organ, and yet we find every degree of suffering, even to the anguish of death, in any organ of the body, as it attempts to perform its simplest function, when in a disease state or condition. 


 Indeed the sycotic element has such a specific action upon the endometrium and uterine appendages that when we meet acute pain, acute or active inflammatory processes, we seldom make a mistake in attributing the cause to sycosis in some form. Syphilis seldom attacks the ovaries or uterus; psora alone will not produce other than functional disturbances. Occasionally we find the tubercular pathology present, but it is so seldom that it is scarcely worth mentioning. We look upon diseases of the tubes now, as sycotic infections always. There are so many degrees or modifications of these sycotic inflammatory processes around and about the uterus and reproductive organs, that it is often difficult to say positively that they are or are not of sycotic origin. A few symptoms that are generally present, must be kept in mind, these are the spasmodic, colicky and often paroxysmal pains, the acrid discharges, the pruritus, the painful and often frequent urination, the fish-brine or stale fish odor of the catarrhal discharges together with the mental phenomena that are usually present. On examination we recognize the mottled appearance of the mucous membrane, so constant in this disease. There are many other symptoms that might be enumerated but as our subject is psora and pseudo-psora we must not depart too far from it other than is necessary in comparison. 


 The sexual and reproductive organs of women, are not be the less free from the influence of miasmatic action; indeed they have become great centers of both physiological, psychological, pathological and therapeutic study for our profound consideration and most serious thought. Today the destructive action of the sycotic miasm upon these organs has become an alarming factor to our strongest therapeutists and our best pathologists. How often the surgeon has to be called in to remove a part or even the whole of the reproductive organs of women, who have gone beyond the power or help of the therapeutist, often because he is not familiar with the nature of the sycotic miasms action upon, not only the reproductive tract, but upon the whole organism of women. His therapeutic knowledge does not reach that far; the physician has for centuries been studying suppressive measures, which will dissipate the disease action of psora and pseudo-psora; when the new element (sycosis) appears, he thinks he can do as he has always done, suppress it, but later on, he finds that a suppression of its catarrhal manifestations gives it a new impetus, a renewed power and energy, and that new processes often develop of either a malignant destructive or inflammatory nature, that baffles all his therapeutic efforts. Why? Because he is not dealing with the same slow insidious elements and processes he found present in psora and pseudo-psora; he, never having been schooled in the history, character, and action of miasmatics, can often distinguish them by name only. 


 The menstrual anomalies of tubercular patients, are in themselves often severe pictures of sufferings and of miasmatic action. The first to be thought of is an exhaustive and often a prolonged and copious flow to be found in these cases. The haemorrhages of bright red blood, are sometimes accompanied with vertigoes, fainting, and with pallor of the face, which is worse by rising from a recumbent position. Quite frequently they are too soon, appearing every two or three weeks; they may or may not be painful, but are always exhausting. She feels badly a week before they appear, suffering in many ways with headaches, backaches, gastric disturbances, neuralgias, etc. Occasionally the menses appear with diarrhoea, with epistaxis, with febrile states, optical illusions, roaring in the ears, sensitiveness to noises, loss of appetite, abdominal pains, nausea and bitter vomiting. The psoric element is of course very marked in these cases, as well; usually flows of psora are bland while in the sycotic they are acrid, excoriating, biting and burning the pudendum. After the menstrual flow the tubercular patient looks pale, with dark rings or circles about the eyes, or hollow eyed, with a worn and exhausted look upon the face. Hysterical symptoms frequently arise in these cases of any form or degree of severity and often they are the most difficult cases we have to treat. 

 Quite frequently the flow is pale, watery, and long lasting, as seen in Calcarea carb., Ferrum, and such remedies. The extremities are usually cold and often the menstrual flow will induced general anaemia in young women, whose ages range from seventeen to twenty-one. They become "chlorotic" as we say, due to the death of many of the red blood cells, which as we have already seen, was due to the specific action of this miasm pseudo-psora. Not infrequently the complexion becomes pale, assuming a yellow or ashy hue, accompanied with starchy or watery leucorrhoeas, palpitation of the heat, faintness and loss of vitality generally; later on general weakness, flushing to the face, vertigo, ringing in the ears, hoarseness, dry, tickling, spasmodic cough, and finally at rue tubercular condition develops. Many of these cases have mental symptoms accompanying those already given, such as great sadness, gloomy, anxious, full of fanciful notions, forebodings with much fear, extreme sensitiveness, nervous, irritable or inclined to weep. Occasionally they will pass through the whole menstrual period until its close, with very little annoyance or suffering, to be followed with prosopalgias of a prolonged and most distressing nature. 


 These are a few of the many symptoms that arise in these tubercular individuals, but volumes might be written in order to cover these cases fully. I have said nothing to speak of about the pains, neuralgias, spasmodic and reflex symptoms and sufferings of those patients, who suffer from retroversions, retroflexions, and other malpositions of the uterus. Usually in marked case of the diathesis, the uterus is retroverted or retroflexed and many of their sufferings date from some time soon after puberty, within a year or so at least. We have the same relaxed muscular system throughout; these patients becoming easily exhausted, easily tired, menses copious, too early and long lasting and accompanied with backache, headache, reflexes of all kinds and a long train of symptoms peculiar to this class of women. Their labors at childbirth are often difficult, severe, prolonged, exhausting, and many of them are unable to nourish their children at all. Displacement, prolapsus and all that train of symptoms are apt to follow with a history of sub-involution and general bad health. 
 This picture is not at all overdrawn; indeed we see it so frequently in our practice, that we often wish it were our good fortune not to meet these cases so frequently Hahnemann called these patients psoric, but they are more than psoric, they have combined with psora, an element that develops a train of symptoms that in which psora can only take a part. Most of these patients are of a motor or sanguine-motor temperament. 


 In psora, we may have almost any kind of a flow, but it never approaches the haemorrhagic form found in pseudo-psora. It is more apt to be scanty, indeed the patient will complain of its being of too short duration. It is generally offensive, often extremely so, yet it may have none of these characteristics, except that it is not as profuse as we found under the tubercular diathesis. We find not infrequently, an intermittent flow; it stops and starts. Indeed the dysmenorrhoea of psora, shows itself very early at puberty and at the climatic period. The pains are usually sharp but never assume the colicky, spasmodic nature which we find in sycosis or when we find the sycotic taint accompanying the psoric or the pseudo-psoric combine. The menstrual pains of sycosis can well be understood from a study of some of our remedies, such as Colocynthis, Mag., carb., Phos., Crocus sativa, Sepia, Lac canium, Caulophyllum and others. There is another class that represents the rheumatic element in sycosis, which may be studied, such as Rhus tox, Bovista, Actea; rac Bry, Cham, Colch, Cyclamen, Dulcamara, Gelsemium, Phytolacca, Pulsatilla and others. Sulphur probably gives us a broader conception of the psoric diathesis, than any other remedy; yet it is such deep acting remedy that it will cover even the pseudo-psoric constitution. The sycotic menstrual pains are spasmodic, extremely sharp, colicky, coming in paroxysms, the flow often only with the pains. It is offensive, clotted, stringy (psoric clots, small), clots large, dark, even black (flow bright red, the tubercular or light colored and watery). The flow of sycosis is seldom bland, usually excoriating and acrid, patients with a tubercular taint we occasionally have cholera-like symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, extreme purging from the bowels, with diarrhoea or dysentery, fainting, cold sweat on the forehead, but the flow is seldom if ever clotted; it is usually fluid-like profuse, light red, watery and seldom offensive and not infrequently it has the odor of fresh blood. 


 The leucorrhoeas of the tubercular are generally purulent but may be watery mucus. They are often debilitating and worse before the flow begins or immediately after. The leucorrhoeas of psora are scanty, to exhausting, have nothing peculiar about their color, in fact they may be any color, but they have not the deep, thick, yellow or yellowish green of the tubercular individual. 
 The leucorrhoeas of the sycotic patient are thin, look like dirty water, greenish yellow sometimes, scanty, acid, producing biting or itching and burning of the parts. The odor is that of stale fish or fish brine. Occasionally the leucorrhoeas of the pseudo-psoric are lumpy, thick, albuminous or purulent, smelling musty. In sycosis they may be pungent or like that of a decayed fish; the patient is forever taking douches on account of the odor and the acridity of the discharge. Often the discharge produces little vesicles or excoriations on the pudendum, which are a source of great annoyance to the patient. In marked cases of the sycotic leucorrhoea often the mental symptoms are to be carefully considered as diagnostic in the differentiation of these different forms that come to our notice. We will have to study the other psoric symptoms of our patient, in order to get a clear picture of the menstrual phenomena. Many of the reflexes, such as headaches, heart difficulties, coughs and mental symptoms, are due to a deep psoric taint. Yet they are greatly magnified in a tubercular diathesis. Many of the ovarian or tubular symptoms that develop during the menses, are dependent more on sycosis than to any other miasm. 

 Upper and lower extremities 
 Stitching, shooting or lancinating pains in the periosteum or long bones of the upper or lower extremities, syphilis, shooting or tearing pains in the muscles or joints, sycosis, pains in finger or small joints; sycosis; neuralgic pains may be either psora or pseudo-psora; they are usually relieved by quiet, rest and warmth. The syphilitic pains are worse at night, or at the approach of night; they are also worse by change of weather, by cold and damp atmosphere. The sycotic pains are worse by rest and the patient is relieved by moving, by rubbing, stretching, and better in dry, fair weather; worse at the approach of a storm or a damp, humid atmosphere and a falling barometer or becoming cold; heat does not always relieve a sycotic patient; stiffness and soreness, especially lameness, is very characteristic of sycosis. 


 They are worse stooping, bending or beginning to move. Psora often is worse by motion and better by rest and warmth. Tubercular joint troubles have increased in osseous tissues, nodular growths similar to syphilis. The bones are soft, rickety and cured, as seen frequently in bow-legged children. They lack the heard earthy matter necessary to make a firm bone. They are so soft and flexible, that many times in children they will not bear the weight to their body, therefore when children first begin to walk, the feet become deformed or the long bones become curved or bowed like a barrel stave. Nothing but the syphilitic element will make these changes as we find them in these pseudo-psoric children. The periosteal difficulties in pseudo-psora are due to periosteal inflammations or tertiary or tubercular changes in the bones themselves, while the pains in the joints or periosteum from sycosis, are due to gouty concretions, or chalky deposits in the tissues themselves, conveyed from the circulation. The tubercular and syphilitic bone pains are very similar, both as to their character and times of aggravation. In the arthritis of sycosis or rheumatism, we have an infiltration of inflammatory deposits, but it readily absorbs and is never formative as we find in syphilis and tubercular changes, which are permanent unless dissipated by treatment. 


 In the nails we have many inflammatory changes, due to syphilis and tuberculosis. We have in both, true onychia, though not of such a specific character in the tubercular process as in the tertiary syphilis; yet they are very similar in their nature. Paronychia is another common tubercular inflammation we may meet with in those pale skinned, anaemic tubercular subjects. Pustules form often on the lower extremities or about the fingers or hands. The nails of those patients are brittle, break or split easily, often we have hang nails, which are so characteristic of a tubercular taint. It is an unfailing sign. In sycosis the nails are ribbed or ridged, but in syphilis or in pseudo-psora they are thin as paper, bend easily and are sometimes spoon shaped, that is, the natural convexity is reversed. Many of the tubercular nails are spotted or show white specks in them here and there. Sometimes the anterior edges are serrated or slightly scalloped. When we find this, we also find a thin spoon shaped and paper-like nail. Not infrequently, with no warning whatever, we have pustular inflammation about the nail. So often the nails drop off and grow again. The periosteal inflammation, commonly known as felon or periphalangeal cellulitis, is truly a pseudo-psoric inflammation as are other periosteal changes. We have many others, which will be dealt with under skin eruptions. The fingers of tubercular individuals are long and do not taper gradually but are blunt or club shaped at their extremities. This long fingered individual with the lengths so irregularly arranged, is characteristic. Often the hand is thin, soft, flabby and easily compressed, usually very moist or often cold, damp, perspiring profusely. 


 The same thing may be said of the feet. This coldness of the hands and feet is very marked but the patient is not always conscious of it. In psora they are dry, hot, often with burning sensations in the palms and soles. Of course we meet with this often in the tubercular patient but it is nevertheless a psoric symptom. Occasionally this dryness and harshness is a source of great annoyance to the patients; we notice it as soon as we touch them; on the other hand, we can never fail to recognize the sign of the true tubercular taint, by taking hold of that long fingered, cold, damp and chilly hand, that almost chills you to the touch as marble would. The soft, flabby, non-resistant muscle, the clammy perspiration, the translucent nail, the flat imperfect curve, the uneven and ridged, pale matrix, the hand nail, the tendency to imperfect curves, especially in the nails of the feet, the ingrown nail, the tendency to ulcerations, and induration and abscesses where the system is very deeply impregnated with psora, the perspiration is sometimes very offensive, carrion like, rotting the hose often, which is a great source of annoyance to these patients. We see such types of pseudo-psora in the action of such remedies as Cal. cab., Baryta-carb., Baryta-iod., Iodine, Silica and that class of remedies, whose action is deep and long lasting partaking of both the tubercular and the psoric element. 


 Notice their perspiratory secretions, their action upon the skin, glands and secretory apparatus, all of which are involved in pseudo-psora to any degree of physiological and pathological changes, due to the powerful action of these two miasms. Probably no other parts of the body reveal to us more typical demonstrations of their action, than that found upon the extremities, or parts remote from centres of circulation, which are apt to manifest their latent symptoms more clearly. Cramps in the lower extremities, in the calves of the legs, in the feet toes, ankles an in steps are usually of a psoric nature, although found more frequently in the pseudo-psoric. In psora we have burning in the soles of the feet, numbness of the extremities with tingling sensations, feeling as if the parts were going to sleep, worse lying down or after sleep, or if any pressure is brought to bear upon the part, as lying lightly on the arm or crossing the limbs, etc., prickling or tingling in the fingers or extremities, due to poor circulation, coldness of single parts, as knees, hands, feet, ears and nose, etc. Often there is a constant chilliness in psoric patients, when suffering from any disease or slight ailment; we find them hovering over the stove or over the radiator. They can not leave it without suffering from cold. Again in the pseudo-psoric, the warm air of the room is extremely annoying to them; the pseudo-psoric can not endure much cold yet they can not endure much heat. 


 Chilblains are based upon all the miasms. We have the pseudo-psoric taint with a sycotic element as a basis; this is why they prove such a dreadful disease producing agent, when suppressed by local measures. Any expression of disease may follow their suppression, even to malignant or spasmodic disease. I have traced chorea and many other severe nervous disorders to a suppression of chilblains; more will be said of it and case given to demonstrate this fact in Volume II of this work. Corns are found in the pseudo-psoric; these and like classifications of hypertrophies are found in the tubercular taint. Boils are usually psoric but they may depend on both the psoric and pseudo-psoric influences; the small, sensitive, painful and non-suppurating kind are truly psoric, but where we have much suppuration, we will find the tubercular element present. They are a good omen often, especially so after giving an anti-psoric remedy, although Sulphur will produce them if repeated often and they be mistaken for an idiopathic condition; paralytic disease, oedematous swellings, anasarca and such diseases are either sycotic, syphilitic or pseudo-psoric; there may be any degree of a psoric element present, but what we wish to make clear, is that psora alone does not produce these diseases; there must be more than psora present to develop such deep destructive diseases. Talipes and such deformities in children are also pseudo-psoric or syphilitic. We might mention many other conditions in children due to this pseudo-psoric element, and yet not exhaust this subject. We find general muscular weakness or loss of power in the ankle joints among these children; they stumble and fall easily; they are clumsy and awkward and lack co-ordination or complete muscular control of themselves, thus they are forever falling; indeed they will stumble over a straw; they drop things easily out of their hands; they have no surety in themselves whatever; they tire easily in walking, and especially in climbing a height. 


 The psoric patient an walk well, but it kills him to stand still; this is such a positive symptom of psora that i can always be depended upon. The tubercular patient is short-winded; a short mountain climb gets him all out of breath or the climbing of fifteen or twenty steps of stairs tires the patient out. They can always descend better than ascend. White swelling of the joints or idiopathic synovitis, even the rheumatic forms have this tubercular element very marked. Of course the rheumatic form has a mixed miasm or the sycotic taint, combined with the pseudo-psoric. We also find the pseudo-psoric element in what is known as drop wrist, or in all idiopathic weakness or loss of power in the tendons about the joints. In children and young people, we find the ligaments about the joints are easily sprained, the ankles turn very easily from the slightest misstep, the wrists show the same weakness in these soft and weak muscled individuals playing the piano or operating a type writer, causes swelling, soreness or pain in the writs joints, and sometimes bursae form suddenly from these causes; or they become lame easily or there is sudden loss of strength. This muscular insufficiency is seen all throughout childhood and early youth; these are the individuals that have no strength to develop themselves through physical culture or gymnastic exercises. Indeed they lack energy as well as strength, and although they may be induced to try these exercises, they soon give them up for lack of vigor and strength to continue them. Many of these patients look robust and well nourished, but when they are brought to the best they have no endurance. Their exhaustion is restored only by much rest and especially long sleeps. Many of these young people are forced to labor far beyond their strength, but because of their apparently well nourished and robust appearance, they do not get the sympathy they deserve. The basic principle of strength, is in the basic elements that the red blood cells have built up from having all the true protoplasmic elements present, that go to make up a healthy blood cell; but in pseudo-psora many of these elements are in excess and others deficient, thus limes and silicates are deficient in these patients, while we usually find the muscular and adipose tissues greatly in excess. 


 Skin 
 We have already stated that all skin eruptions are either secondary or tertiary expressions of miasmatic action. The skin is the mirror or the reflector of the internal stress, the internal dynamis, the internal workings of this human machine. It has in the skin, its reflectors, its kaleidoscope, its kinetoscopic views of its internal movements, and its multiple shadings of disease, its lights and its shadows that go to make up a picture, thrown upon that human canvas, the skin, showing much of perverted life action in the organism. 


 Pathologically speaking, we look upon the outer man for signs, for markings or pencillings that ell of the kind of life within the organism itself. Sometimes these pencillings are like shadowgraphs, showing only faint tracings of the presence of a latent miasm, and again they many be well defined and well developed even to physiological changes of form, color and proportions. 
 When se look upon these lesions of the skin as local states or changes in itself, we simply ignore that co-operative principles that rules throughout the organism as a whole, and we attribute that power to a part and not to that which governs the whole. Therefore our therapeutic efforts are themselves misdirected and instead of directing the perverted life forces aright, we misguide them, bringing about nothing but Babylon or confusion. 
 It was upon the skin that Hahnemann first saw the true psoric vesicle; it was there he first became familiar with psora as it came forth or receded under the potent influence of the applied law (similia). It was there that the mysterious veil was rent or lifted and he was permitted to look into the psoric mystery and see the true etiology of disease. It was in his study of disease that he saw the haemorrhage, the menorrhagia, the persistent local pain, the abnormal growth, the vertigo, the nervous attack, the spasm, the convulsion, the mania, the moral insanity and a thousand other things that might be cited, disappear forever, as a local expression of an eruptive disease presented itself upon the surface of the skin, and as he watched these multiple presentations that appear often so mysteriously from within, so we today look for relief and for cure through the same natural processes or metamorphosis of similia. 


 The skin of a psoric patient is dry, rough, dirty or unhealthy looking, and not only that but it has an unwashed appearance, and the more you bathe it the rougher it becomes, as it can not endure water In pseudo-psora, this is magnified in such diseases as eczema fissum and itching of the skin. Pruritis of the skin is always a psoric symptom. 
 There is very little suppuration in psoric skin diseases; they are apt to be dry, with scanty suppuration, sero-purulent and occasionally bloody. Quite often the eruptions are papular in form, accompanied with intense itching. Sometimes the eruptions are papulo-vesicular in form, accompanied with intense itching. If pustular or vesicular, they are nowhere as marked in their suppurative process, as we find in the pseudo-psoric. They syphilitic eruptions are found about the joints, flexures of the body or arranged in circular groupings, rings or segments of circles. The color is significant, copper colored or raw-ham color, brownish or very red at their base. Psoric eruptions are as a rule the color of the skin, unless and inflammatory process is present. There is no itching in the syphilitic and very little soreness, itching is wholly a psoric symptom, the vesicle is also a psoric lesion when found in non-syphilitic cases. The scales and crusts of syphilis are always thick and heavy, while those of psora are thin, light, fine and small and usually quite general over the affected part; for instance, if the scalp is affected in psora, the scaly condition is quite universal, while in other conditions, like syphilis or sycosis, it is patchy or in circumscribed spots. Of course, such diseases as homeopathy for psoriasis have to be differentiated. Often the skin loses all moisture and becomes exceedingly dry and free from oil or from the sebaceous secretions; we recognize it by the touch in psora. If its is very oily or greasy, we will find he sycotic element present or the pseudo-psoric. Skin affections with glandular involvement will necessarily have the syphilitic or the tubercular element to conform with the glandular involvement. When we look into such skin diseases as Ichthyosis (fish skin), we will find all the chronic miasms present, and where we find them all present, we usually find an incurable skin disease, especially if hereditary. 

 In Ichthyosis we see the dryness of psora and the squamae of syphilis, and often the moles and warty eruptions are present, showing the sycotic element. In the varicose veins we find the tubercular taint predominates and it is in these patients we seethe varicose ulcer, the last skin lesion to make its appearance in a case of ancient or hereditary syphilis, that has already become and now is, largely pseudo-psora. 


 In ecchymosis, or in fact, any form of purpura, we can easily recognize a pseudo-psoric basis. Even in continued fevers like typhoid, we see this in the petechial haemorrhage into the skin. The wondrous variations that we find in eczema are in themselves a miasmatic study and often a great problem to decipher as to their miasmatic origin, from the papular eruption of psora to the pustule of the pseudo-psoric. In eczema exfoliatia, we see all the chronic miasms reflected therein and more particularly the sycotic element. We often see them all present in such diseases as erysipelas, carcinoma, epithelioma, lupus; lupus always has the three miasms and the features of each are easily recognizable to the experienced student of miasmatics. In acute exanthematous diseases, we can readily detect the tubercular patient from psoric by the severity of the attack, the appearance of the eruption and the tendency to secondary complications. This is clearly seen in measles, scarlet fever and such diseases. Not infrequently we have cases where the vitality of the patient is so low that we are unable to assist nature in bringing forth the eruption. This lowered vitality is always dependent on a tubercular dyscrasia. Herpes are found in the tubercular and some forms, such as circinnatus and herpes zoster have a sycotic basis, which we have to deal with largely in our treatment of these cases. In most case of litchen, I have seen this sycotic principle combined with a tubercular taint. 


 Many forms of urticaria can be traced to patients who have a tubercular dyscrasia. homeopathy for psoriasis has a syco-psoric foundation and this fact has been recognized by a number of pathologists; of course they call it a lithic state, which means the same thing; variola and that class of diseases comes under the same catalogue. In diseases of excretion and secretion, such as Hyperidrosis and Bromidrosis, we see them only in the pseudo-psoric. Anidrosis is of course psoric, but will be found also in the pseudo-psoric. In urticaria we see the psoric element cropping out in the pruritis, yet it is in the individual with a tubercular taint and especially in women and children, that we seethe more marked manifestations of urticaria. In abscesses and ulcers of the skin, this element is always uppermost and of course is active in their production. Freckles upon the skin are also quite significant to these fine, smooth, clear and transparent skinned patients, with an underlying pseudo-psoric taint. Psora has no such a smooth, clear skin as we find in these freckled patients; indeed, psora has just the reverse; a dirty, dingy, muggy skin, showing more or less papules and other eruptions. Goose flesh, commonly so called (cutis-ancerino) is another pseudo-psoric state, induced in these easily chilled patients, who are disturbed by the slightest chilling of the surface of the body, causing the superficial circulation to recede. Indeed, their cutamous circulation is very easily disturbed, inducing colds and catarrhal conditions of the head and throat. Of course psora may be at the bottom of much of this, but what I wish to emphasize is, that this condition of the skin is found in the pseudo-psoric individual; Nat. mur. Hep., Silica and such remedies are a good illustration of this pseudo-psoric manifestation. Injuries to the skin, especially slight injuries, heal readily in the ordinary psoric patient, with little or no pus formation, but it is in the pseudo-psoric individual that we se the abscess arise, the ulcerative process, the copious formation and elimination of this pus element, far beyond that necessary in the ordinary healing process. The same thing an be seen in our surgical operations; if we study the miasmatic basis of our patient, we will readily see why we have stitch abscesses in one case of abdominal operation and not in another; by no means are the antiseptic precautions always at fault or the suture material to blame. These cases come where the closest attention has been given to these facts and where nothing has been left undone to make the work a success. If the sycotic element is present as it is in the majority of abdominal operations, the possibility of stitch abscesses or pus products is greatly increased. A few experiences of this kind, together with a careful study of the miasmatic basis of our patients, will reveal this truth fully to our minds. Condylomata anywhere in the skin have sycosis or are of a syco-syphilitic nature. 


 In gangrene or gangrenous spots upon the skin of an idiopathic nature, we will of course, always find a syphilitic or tubercular taint in the organism unless it is due to medicinal causes. In the dry gangrene, of which I have seen a great number of cases, a syphilitic infection was always present. Of course this may not always be the case, but it has been my experience to find this true in every case I have examined. Insect stings from a bug or bee, etc., and like causes, affect these patients with a tubercular taint very decidedly, even more than they affect those suffering from a simple psoric condition. It is surprising, the reflexes that develop in these cases; this is also true in patients suffering from punctured wound of the skin; they do not recover from these slight injuries and are so liable to tetanus, spasms, or some severe reflex condition that endangers life. 


 Impetigo is another skin eruption of an inflammatory origin and will be found, as a rule, in pseudo-psoric individuals. I have made a careful study of this disease and find it largely in these patients. Its unknown contagious principle, however, is likely to be found, from the fact that these psoric patients take every disease that comes along (as we often remark), whatever may be the basic element in its origin. 
 New growths are in themselves a life study; when I speak of new growths, I mean all of a benign or malignant origin; all are due to miasmatic origin and to miasmatic influence upon the life force. When we speak of new growths, we mean of course, false growths, abnormal growths, or falsifications in parts and organs of the body. A perfectly healthy organism can and does nothing else than to fulfil and carry out its normal function in the organism. It is only when that function is disturbed that pathology is given its birth. Pathology is but a wrong way or a wrong movement in the life action, hence new growths are the results of false movements or false action, prolonged, of course. Now, while their primary or predisposing cause may lie in psora, we do not find false growths or abnormal growths in those patients that have no other miasmatic basis but psora. A close investigation will reveal other miasms to be present and to be co-operative with psora, and these are either the tubercular or pseudo-psoric element, often the sycotic combined. 


 In lupus, we see all the miasms, both in the erythematous and the vulgaric forms. 
 In epithelioma, the pseudo-psoric is the prominent miasm or the tubercular; it is seen in the tuberculosis of lupus, also. The sycotic poisoning always lends new vigor to any malignancy. These are the incurable cases that have all the chronic miasms co-operative in abnormal growths. How often we have noticed that people suffering from tumors, whether of a benign or malignant nature, have a thin, pale skin, or if the body is well nourished, there is a certain clearness about it that is characteristic of a tubercular taint; in the skin there is also a certain transparency, the blood vessels, especially the veins and capillaries, reflecting through the tissues as they lie beneath. It is in the tubercular or the syphilitic that we see much scarring and an increase of cicatricial tissue; quite often the cicatrix is atrophic, or it seems to lie below the level of the surface of the skin, as if it was not completely filled in. It is in the tubercular constitution that such scarring and deformity after ulcers, burns and scalds are found and the ulcer preceding the scar are usually deep, destructive and have a copious exudation of pus. 

 In leprosy, we have another destructive process of tubercular origin, even to vicious and unprecedented deformity. It is in the lymphatic temperament, a temperament in which the tubercular element thrives very luxuriantly, and especially is this true when the lymphatic temperament is beginning to fully show itself (fortieth year) that we see our malignancies come to the surface. It is in the lymphatic that we find such a rich soil for that sexual disease, gonorrhoea and syphilis; it is in the lymphatic that the glandular system is so frequently involved and in which rapid and destructive processes take place. It is in the tubercular we have so much difficulty to eradicate from it syphilis (acquired) or gonorrhoea. It is in these systems that we have the prolonged tertiary processes and the tertiary lesions, that are persistent and stubborn. The gonorrhoea runs into a gleety discharge and strictures, pockets and metastasis forms, or we have metastasis to the ovaries, broad ligaments, tubes, uterus, rectum and all such complications with which we so frequently meet. It is the tubercular diathesis that complicates all our skin diseases and make them so difficult to remove. 


 In the fibrous growths, we have all the miasms present, the displacement of other tissues for the dense, white and fibrous formations which we find in fibroma, which is due to one of the deepest and most profound miasmatic changes conceivable. Not long ago I saw a case of skin disease in a young woman of about 30 years of age which consisted of fibrous growths all over the body from the size of a lager pea to that of a cherry; on close examination of the case I found all the miasms present; although all were of hereditary form, there was the dilated capillaries of the tubercular or the pseudo-psoric; the dry, dirty skin of psora; the verruca of sycosis; the moles with their hairy tufts of syphilis; the red pinhead sized sycotic mole, besides she had the family history of tuberculosis on her mother's side. It would require years of treatment to make any impression on such cases, in fact, many if not all of them are incurable. In News or congenital markings of the skin, we see all these miasmatic elements present; these warty, pigmented growths, these wine-colored patches, all have an underlying stratum of sycosis, as well as of pseudo-psora. We then see them all also in elephantiasis, in the vegetable parasitical pest as seen in tinea. We see the animal parasite in the psoric and pseudo-psoric; probably no skin diseases show such a special form of sycotic expression as we find in Tinea barbae, Tinea tonsuraus, Tinea vesicular and similar diseases of the face, scalp and other parts of the body; when they are suppressed, they develop further sycotic difficulties of a sycotic nature. 


 Many forms of pruritis have all the miasms present and in severe cases we always recognize psora and sycosis, especially those developing about the sexual organs, or anus, and nose. I have seen some of these cases, especially those of anus and the rectum, so severe as to almost drive the patient to distraction; when the sycotic element was counteracted by a suitable remedy, the patient got immediate relief. Medorrhinum has often done this for me and there are many other remedies to be thought of, such as Abrotanum, Aesculus, Nat; mur., Rhus Tox., Rhus. Ven., Sabadilla, Sepia, Agaricus, Cannabis Sat., Dolichos, Gambogia, and others. (See Pruritis, page 206 to 213, diseases and Therapeutics of the Skin.). 
 Eruptions suppressed by local means have produced, according to Hahnemann, the following diseases and conditions that were observed in his own practice : Dyspnoea, two died of suffocation, five had difficult breathing and general anasarca, where itch was suppressed; one had infiltration of the pericardium; one had pneumonia and died in about a week; many have died of chest diseases, says Hahnemann, where scabies acarus was suppressed; Tinea, suppressed, has produced asthma, convulsions and death in a number of cases. All throughout Hahnemann's experiences, the suppression of pseudo-psoric eruptions produced haemorrhages, spasms, convulsions, coma and death. It has also produced reflexes of all kinds, nervous disorders, asthma, paralysis, stomach and intestinal disorders, catarrhal conditions, chronic coughs and such disorders. Where the tubercular taint is present we have had dyspnoea, infiltration of the lungs, pneumonia, chronic lung affections, tuberculosis and especially chest diseases. 


 Where sycotic skin disease were suppressed, we have had malignant growths, especially where the psoric taint was marked or the tubercular element was clearly present, cancer, lupus, vulgaris, and lupus erythematosis, cardiac difficulties, carditis, pericarditis, dropsy of the pericardium, valvular lesions of all kinds, epilepsy, apoplexy and lesions in all parts of the body. Ho careful we should be not to suppress any local manifestations of one of these chronic miasms, knowing not what the outcome may be; for possibly by so doing, we may have started the organism in its downward course to death, instead of directing it in the right direction, whereby it might receive the blessing of its healer, the true physician, and not his curse. Then let our work show for itself, let it demonstrate that it is of law, by its vivifying refreshing, recreating, uplifting, encouraging and healing process in the suffering one; let the patient speak for the true process of healing by the cures we make; yes, let the new power and new vigor given to the lagging life forces, answer; god is in this work and it is His way, for His way is he way of law. 
 "It is impossible", says Hahnemann, "that a rational physician, after these examples shining clear as the sun, should still continue to assail he body as hitherto done." Then let us draw together, after having read this work, and if we can not fully imitate the Master Hahnemann, let us at least make an effort to know this la of cure, which like Portia's blessing, "blesseth him that gives and him that takes", for its becomes us better than a crown. 

 "Humanity is an army on the march", says Savage. "Many of them are sick". If the unscientific methods of today continue, the whole army will soon be fit subjects for the hospital or the camp. 
 When we take into consideration the false cures and the suppressive measures used in the eager attempt to satisfy, or to show results that approach in some degree the semblance of a cure, together with the lust for gold that has so lamentably taken hold of the physician of today, who should, above all men, be free from the power of its fetters and bands, little wonder that we desire a reform. 
 When humanity falls, we should lift them up, irrespective of nationality, caste, class, color, or race, for all are humanity and all are sick from the same cause, and have the same weaknesses, the same sufferings and deserve the same pity and the same help, for the same God ruleth over all, and if we are his true physicians, then these are all our children and we are subject to their cry for help. 


 If we would know the truth as taught by Hahnemann, we must get away from the influence of those teachers who have no faith, no experience and no knowledge of this law of cure. We must put ourselves under the influence of, and in personal contact with, men of large faith and of broad knowledge of this law, and who are enthusiastic in advancing the truth, who live out this truth in their practice and who will not yield to the temptation to resort to those uncertain methods, experiments and makeshifts of tradition or of modern medicine. 
 with such a foundation, we are ready to build our superstructure and do justice and honor to the cause of Homoeopathy. 
 If our children (students) call for bread, shall we feed them homeopathic kidney stones? No, we can not satisfy their hunger with false doctrines, and should we attempt it the reflection is forever cast upon the false teacher and his false doctrines. 
 Friends of Homoeopathy, wake up! The time has come for your light to shine. There are a few leaders who are working with all their might for the truth they represent. We can not all be leaders, but we can at least be supporters of those who are, lending a helping hand. False prophets are on every hand and we must "keep watch and ward", for as one has said, "eternal vigilance is the price of liberty". 
 There is no Golden Age coming to us; we must make it ourselves; the prophetic inspiration must be in you that have the light within you. Then let us keep our lamps burning at their full brightness, speaking the truth, living the truth and sealing it by our workmanship through the law, letting the voice of the healed one echo an answer down through the ages, so that the coming generations may know hat we were lights in this world of darkness, and that we were known by our light. 


 We must have a greater and a larger faith, for true knowledge is only born of faith; sin, error, and confusion come in when faith goes out, and man recedes back to this own reasonings, "which are vain and imaginative". 
 The Greeks were the wisest people of their age, and even today their knowledge is our classics, yet we see that "the world by wisdom knew not God" (I Cor., I : 21). When Paul the Apostle visited Athens, that great center of learning, he saw a sculptured image to an unknown God (which God was the true God) yet, through their wisdom they had lost sight of Him, therefore knew Him not. So the wisdom of this world comes in a cloud to overshadow the light, and we lose sight of God's laws and His principles, thus, in our blindness, we create false principles and false methods to take the place of truth. This is just what has taken place with the teaching of Hahnemann. Men would displace them, even his mighty Organon of principle, for their vain, unscientific reasonings and imaginings, until the teachings of these false prophets bring us as slaves to Babylon, until our Israel of power and truth would vanish from the earth. Then it is that our death processes multiply and pathology becomes more complex, disease more difficult to cure, and we become vassals to makeshifts; the splints and the bandages of tradition are returned to us and we are disrobed of our former power to heal the sick, because we have lost sight of the basic principles of our law. When law disappears, doubt comes upon the throne and with doubt comes darkness and the vanishing of light. 


 A true Homoeopathic education, however, knows no doubt; faith takes the place of doubt, for nothing is brought into that education that savors of doubt; nothing is brought into it but what strengthens our faith and builds up and makes strong. As we advance in its knowledge, every doubt disappears, every false teaching that we may have hitherto believed, is expunged. A new revelation comes to us. As we become followers of law, we become follower of light until we are lifted up beyond the clouds and misty exhalations of the world's knowledge, and as we enter the doorway of truth we see the falsity of all that which is not in harmony with Hahnemann's Organon of medicine, and with his precepts and principles. What I mean by world knowledge is the knowledge which we call empiricism, which has only man's experience behind it; a thing not to be accepted alone in medicine. Mechanics is built on true principles, and has power, and is in agreement with true science and the mechanical laws. "It is the testimony of the few", says Dr. P.P.  Wells, "who make and observe experiments which constitute the additions to the sum of human knowledge, as possessed by the many." This should not be so, but, nevertheless, it is true, yet how zealous are these men who do investigate for themselves; they become all of one mind and one accord, by virtue of all having the truth, for truth makes them as of one mind and as one man. Nothing but truth unifies, and when we take hold of truth, we place ourselves in the pathway of divine circuit, whereby we are able to analyze law, which is the wisdom of our Creator. Now, knowing law, we become as an Archimedes of power, drawing from the central source of power by our obedience to the demands of law; but being without law, we are simply powerless, a mere nothing, a vessel beached upon the sands, void of power. In fact, our ability in any sphere of life, is in proportion as we comply with, or as we draw upon law. 


 To be governed by these principles of Homoeopathy is to be governed by truth; to be governed by truth is to be governed by law and to be governed by law is to be governed by Omnipotence. 
 Every student of Homoeopathy is a student of nature, studying the phenomena of natural laws, and scientists in the laboratories of the force world, comparing the laws of biogenesis with the laws of similia, so that "every new development makes us stronger in the faith". Law is a something to be hated by an unlawful man; but, to the one who loves law, it speaks in whispers, yet loud enough to be heard by that humble listener, and in a language that is not foreign to him, yea, though often it is only in a symbol or a cipher. 


 As we apply law to disease, we become acquainted with these mysterious movements of disease; thus we know them as perverted law movements and changes, through perversions in the life force; and so, as we appeal to law, we can scientifically apply it to these perverted movements and changes in what is known as disease, for we call into effect all the forces governed by that law. The truth is this, he feels that he is ever "standing in the omni-presence of law and it has taken possession of him." It is guiding and directing him into these strange and mysterious by-ways of perverted life action, which he, through his limited reasonings otherwise can not follow, indeed he could become lost in this labyrinth of perversions and changes, due often to heredity alone. Law, you see, then, lifts that veil and enables us to see into that which seemed impenetrable and closed forever from our vision; thus we are led on from truth to truth, from mystery to even greater mystery, until life becomes clearly manifest in law. Our cures of disease are not to be found in Aconite, Arsenic, Apis and Aloes alone, but in their application to disease through the law of similia. Similia is not a disease nor a remedy nor a pathy, but a law. These miasmatic forces are in this way made plain as we study them from this standpoint, and we are prepared to give a reason for these many manifestations of disease, for we become viewers of nature through the telescopes of law. By diving down into the very spirit of things, we are enabled to awaken a spirit of research in other, so that they take a part with us, and these things that have ever been a mystery to us, heretofore, become intelligible, yea, we get a genetic view of things, untrammelled by prejudice, and truth becomes an exact correspondence in its subjective and objective relations. In this way we can open up doors of truth that have been barred during all time. Hahnemann did this as he brought forth his mystery of the miasms and the law of similia. The world often frowns upon this truth, but it shines all the brighter for it, and like the diamond, throws out its light from every angle. The influence of similia steals over us gently through this wonderful law and the law is fulfilled in itself. It expunges the miasmatic taint and through its creative power, it creates health, bringing forth all the attributes of health and strength. Indeed "Homoeopathy partakes of that great pulse of nature that beats against the barriers of materialism". It is the pulse of love, and with each throb comes a new genesis, a new life. 


 From the true scientist nature cannot keep hidden her secrets, indeed her secrets and her mysteries are only hidden from him who tramples upon her laws and carest not to know her as she should be known. But to him who is honest and who earnestly endeavours to understand the truths of Homoeopathy, all these truths are made manifest. 

 No language is too old for him to read, it speaks to him in tongue of fire and he is allowed to escape from the "hear-says" of uncertainty in his study of life and disease; so we are brought face to face with the true Shekinah in man and the secret of the diseases ego is made manifest

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